IC 2 = MCG -02-01-031 = PGC 778

00 11 00.9 -12 49 22; Cet

Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 142°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, 30"x15", nearly even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 2' W.  Situated at the midpoint of a 12" pair of stars 5' NNE and a 28" pair 5' SSW.  Located 15' SSE of orange mag 5.9 HD 645.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2 = J. 1-1 on 27 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch f/23 Henry Bros. refractor at the Nice observatory.  His position matches MCG -02-01-031.

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IC 3 = MCG +00-01-038 = CGCG 382-032 = PGC 836

00 12 06.1 -00 24 55; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 53°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~35"x25", round core with a very small bright nucleus increasing to a stellar peak.  A mag 14.3 star is 1.5' WSW.  A distinctive group of 7 mag 11.5-13 forming a loop is ~5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 3 = J. 1-2 on 12 Sep 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 "Grande Lunette" refractor at Nice by Paul Gautier and the Henry Bros.  He reported it as "faint, very small, irregular form, slightly mottled."  His position matches MCG +00-01-038.

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IC 4 = UGC 123 = MCG +03-01-029 = CGCG 456-040 = PGC 897

00 13 26.9 +17 29 11; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 12°

 

24" (9/16/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 35"x25".  No significant concentration but contains a quasi-stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 31' NW of NGC 57 in a star poor field.

 

Carl Frederick Pechüle discovered IC 4 on 12 Sep 1893 with an 11" Merz refractor at the Copenhagen observatory, probably while searching for a comet.  He reported "very faint, pretty round, 10"-12" diameter, perhaps even bigger, fairly even brightness."  The IC position is 3' too far south, but there are no other nearby candidates.

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IC 5 = MCG -02-01-047 = PGC 1145

00 17 34.9 -09 32 36; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.65';  PA = 9°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, oval 4:3 N-S, very small bright core, good surface brightness, well defined 30" diameter halo.  A mag 13 star is 1' N and a mag 12 star is 2' NW.  MCG -02-01-045, attached on the south side of the mag 12 star, appeared very faint and small, round, only 15" diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 5 = J. 1-3 on 19 Sep 1892 and reported "faint, similar to a mag 13 star with nebulosity".  His position is accurate.

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IC 6 = MCG -01-01-075 = PGC 1228

00 18 55.0 -03 16 34; Psc

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (9/1/16): at 220x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually increases to the center.  Situated between two mag 12.5 stars 3.4' NW and 4.0' SE.  Forms a pair (identical redshifts) with IC 8 3.8' NE.

 

MCG -01-01-074, located 8.2' SSW, appeared extremely faint, very small, occasionally elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, very low surface brightness.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 6 = Sf. 89 = J. I-4 on 23 Sep 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  His position was 1' SE of PGC 1228, the brighter of a pair with IC 8, which he missed.  The Dearborn discovery list was not published until 1887 and added as an appendix to the NGC the following year.  Stephane Javelle probably was unaware of the prior discovery, and found the galaxy again on 19 Sep 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He reported it as the 4th object in his first discovery list with description, "faint, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus of 14th mag."  Dreyer assumed Sf. 89 referred to nearby IC 8 so Javelle was credited with the discovery of IC 6.

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IC 7 = CGCG 433-043 = PGC 1216

00 18 53.2 +10 35 41; Psc

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 0°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint and small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 30"x20", small bright core, quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag ~13 star is at SSW edge and somewhat affects the view.

 

UGC 191, located 25' NE, appeared very faint, moderately large, very low surface brightness irregular patch, seems slightly elongated ~N-S, up to 1' diameter but the outline is ill-defined.  A mag 14.6 star is at the S end.  Three bright stars are near NE including a mag 7.0 star 6.6' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 7 = J. 2-506 on 28 Nov 1893 and remarked, "faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Follows and below a star.  Appears like a double star surrounded by nebulosity.  His position was 3' too far south due to applying the offset in the wrong direction from his comparison star.

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IC 8 = MCG -01-01-076 = PGC 1234

00 19 02.7 -03 13 19; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 129°

 

24" (9/1/16): at 220x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~25"x18", weak concentration.  Fainter of a pair with IC 6 3.8' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 8 = J. I-5 on 19 Sep 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "vF, vS, irr E, little brighter middle" and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer assumed Truman Safford's Sf. 89 was an earlier discovery of this galaxy and credited Safford, but he discovered nearby IC 6.

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IC 9 = MCG -02-02-001 = PGC 1271

00 19 44.0 -14 07 19; Cet

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 122°

 

24" (9/1/16): fairly faint, small, round, 18".  Contains a stellar nucleus embedded in a faint halo.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 9 = J. I-6 on 23 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "vF, roundish, 1' diameter" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 10 = UGC 192 = MCG +10-01-001 = LBN 591 = PP 5 = PGC 1305

00 20 23.2 +59 17 35; Cas

V = 10.4;  Size 6.3'x5.1';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

18" (9/6/10): this local group dwarf Irregular was immediately picked up at 108x (without a printed finder chart) as a large, low surface brightness hazy glow, ~4'x2.5', roughly elongated NW-SE, though the outer extent increased with averted vision and careful viewing.  A mag 12.7 star is superposed to the southeast of center and a few stars are on the northwest end.  The 1.5' region surrounding the mag 12.7 star is the brightest portion of the galaxy and the W and NW regions have a very low surface brightness and appeared irregular and patchy.  Located 12' NE of mag 7.3 HD 486 and just north of a right triangle of mag 10-11 stars

 

Using 175x, a very small 15" knot was clearly visible about 50" following the mag 12.7 star.  This knot is a giant HII region (site of violent starburst formation) catalogued by Hodge and Lee (1990) as HL 111.  At 285x with direct vision a faint star at its west edge was similar in visibility, but with averted vision the HII knot was more evident.  I probably viewed the brightest component 111c, which has a diameter of 11", of this HII complex.  Two mag 10.5 stars 3.5' S and 5.5' S of the galaxy (part of the right triangle mentioned above) provide a useful guide to pinpoint the location of HL 111.  The HII region is directly on a line and equally spaced with these stars -- just follow the stars to the small knot.

 

18" (7/15/07): at 225x this Local Group member (M31 subgroup) appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~4.5'x3.5', low even surface brightness except fades at the edges.  A mag 13 star is superimposed west of center and a fainter star follows.  Located 1.4 degrees ENE of mag 2.3 Beta Cas (Caph).

 

18" (10/8/05): picked up fairly easily at 115x as a large, low surface brightness hazy region with a mag 13 star superimposed.  Good view at 160x using the Meade 14mm Ultrawide.  Appeared faint, large, slightly elongated, ~4'-5' diameter (though no distinct borders) with a patchy, mottled appearance, very weak concentration.  Several faint stars (besides the mag 13 star) are superimposed.  Situated within a rich star field and appears similar to a low surface brightness emission or reflection nebula.

 

13.1" (11/5/83 and 10/20/84): very faint, moderately large, elongated NW-SE.  Unusually low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the center.  Located in a very rich star field just 3.3° from the galactic plane!  Member of the Local Group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 10 = Sw. 7-1 on 8 Oct 1887 and recorded "F * involved in vL, eeeF nebulosity, eee difficult.  In line with 2 stars of equal mag which with a 3rd forms a right angled triangle."

 

Nicholas Mayall first recognized IC 10 as a galaxy in 1935 ("An Extragalactic Object 3° from the Plane of the Galaxy" in PASP, 47, 317).  In 1936, Hubble suggested it might be a member of the local group and called it "One of the most curious objects in the sky" in his 1936 classic "The Realm of the Nebulae."  This wasn't confirmed until 1996 using Cepheid variables and the current distance estimate is ~2.5 million l.y.  This irregular dwarf galaxy is probably a member of the M31 satellite system.  It lies only 3.3° from the galactic plane and is the nearest starburst galaxy.

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IC 11 = NGC 281 = IC 1590 = Cr 8 = LBN 616 = Sh 2-184 = Ced 3 = Pac-Man Nebula

00 52 48 +56 37 42; Cas

Size 35'x30'

 

See observing notes for NGC 281.

 

E.E. Barnard found IC 11 around 1892 using the 6-inch Cooke refractor at Vanderbilt Observatory in Nashville.  The discovery was probably relayed directly to Dreyer as its not mentioned in any of his published papers.  There is nothing at the IC position but Corwin notes that his description points to NGC 281, which is 30 minutes of RA east, and perhaps there was a transcription error.

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IC 12 = MCG -01-02-003 = PGC 1299

00 20 15.0 -02 39 11; Psc

V = 14.8;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 20°

 

24" (9/22/22): at 325x; faint but readily visible, oval 5:2 SSW-NNE, ~35" major axis. Sometimes it seemed to have a brighter spine, like a bar.  A mag 15.5 star is 30" S of center, just off the edge.  MCG -1-2-4, situated just 2' E, was extremely faint and small.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 12 = J. 1-7 on 7 Nov 1891 and recorded "pretty bright, elongated N-S, 20" or larger diameter.

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IC 13 = UGC 195 = MCG +01-02-003 = CGCG 409-002 = PGC 1301

00 20 20.1 +07 42 02; Psc

V = 14.6;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  PA = 163°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 260x and 375x; faint, low surface brightness, often only a slightly brighter central region was seen. With careful viewing the extensions were seen, increasing the size to ~0.9'x0.3' NNW-SSE.  Forms an equilateral triangle with two mag 14/14.5 stars 2' NE and 2' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 13 = J. 2-507 on 10 Nov 1892.  His position is fairly accurate.

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IC 15 = LEDA 165298

00 27 57.6 -00 03 41; Cet

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.35'

 

24" (9/22/22): at 325x; very faint and small, round, just 15" diameter, fairly low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is ~2' NE and a 10th mag star (very wide unequal pair) is 4' NE.  IC 21 lies 19' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 15 = J. 1-8 on 27 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.  PGC doesn't label LEDA 165298 as IC 15.

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IC 16 = MCG -02-02-017 = PGC 1730

00 28 07.7 -13 05 38; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 51°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, nearly even surface brightness.  Two mag 14.4 and 13.7 stars are 2' SE and 3' SE.  Brighter IC 20 lies 9' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 16 = J. 1-9 on 3 Nov 1891.  His position is fairly accurate.

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IC 17 = MCG +00-02-044 = CGCG 383-025 = PGC 1753

00 28 29.8 +02 38 55; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.55'

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very small bright nucleus with a stellar peak.  Member of the NGC 128 group (LGG 006) and located between UGC 275 11' SW and NGC 128 17' NE.

 

UGC 275 appeared faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ~40"x20" (central region), low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 17 = J. 1-10 on 19 Aug 1892.

 

UGC, MCG and PGC misidentified IC 17 as UGC 275.  It is correctly identified in CGCG and in modern databases NED, SIMBAD and LEDA.

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IC 18 = Arp 100 NED1 = VV 234 = VIII Zw 25 = MCG -02-02-023 = PGC 1759

00 28 35.0 -11 35 12; Cet

Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 29°

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; moderately bright, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", weak concentration with an overall fairly low surface brightness.  A mag 16.5 star is adjacent to the center of the galaxy at the east edge.

 

The northern tidal tail was visible as a very faint, narrow extension, ~1' long, to the north-northeast (PA 30°).  The spike stretched roughly twice the length of the galaxy and was slightly brighter or easier to view near where it emerged on the north side of the galaxy.  The tidal plume to the south (not a bridge but extends in the general direction of IC 19) was not seen.

 

24" (9/15/12): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", low surface brightness.  Fainter of a pair (Arp 100) with IC 19 3.4' SSE.  The long, narrow tidal plume extending to the NNE was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 18 = J. 1-11, along with IC 19, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "pF, S, irr, gradually brighter in the middle" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 19 = Arp 100 NED2 = Mrk 949 = MCG -02-02-024 = PGC 1762

00 28 39.5 -11 38 27; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 30°

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25'x 20", bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brighter (higher surface brightness) of an interacting pair with IC 18 3.4' NNW.

 

24" (9/15/12): at 322x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25" diameter, weak even concentration.  Brighter of pair (Arp 100) with IC 18  3.4' NNW.  Located nearly at the midpoint of mag 7.4 HD 2438 and mag 7.4 HD 2553 (17' separation WSW-ENE).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 19 = J. 1-12, along with IC 18, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "R, 20" diameter, stellar [nucl] = 14m." and measured an accurate position.

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IC 20 = MCG -02-02-021 = PGC 1755

00 28 39.7 -13 00 37; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, small bright core, good surface brightness.  Brighter and easier to view than IC 16, located 9' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 20 = J. 1-13 on 3 Nov 1891 and noted "pB, R".  His position is fairly close, but the offset is due to a misidentification of his offset star.

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IC 21 = MCG +00-02-053 = PGC 1785

00 29 10.4 -00 09 50; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

24" (9/22/22): at 325x; extremely faint, round, 15" diameter, low surface brightness, requires averted vision and not held steadily.  IC 15 lies

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 21 = J. 1-14 on 7 Nov 1891 and noted "pB, pS, irr."  His position is accurate.

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IC 22 = MCG -02-02-027 = PGC 1815

00 29 33.2 -09 04 51; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 45°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, small brighter core, ~25"x20".  A mag 11 star is 3.4' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 22 = J. 1-15 on 14 Sep 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 23 = MCG -02-02-032 = PGC 1872

00 30 50.8 -12 43 13; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, ~25" diameter, very small brighter nucleus and occasional stellar tip.  A mag 12.7 star is 3.5' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 23 = J. 1-16 on 2 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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IC 25 = MCG +00-02-064 = CGCG 383-033 = Mrk 952 = PGC 1905

00 31 12.1 -00 24 26; Cet

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 39°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; faint, overall diffuse but contains a small slightly brighter core. The weaker halo is slightly elongated SW-NE and extends ~30"x25".  A mag 11.7 star is 3' N and a mag 12.4 star is a similar distance SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 25 = J. 1-17 on 27 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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IC 26 = NGC 135 = PGC 2010 = LEDA 138192

00 31 45.9 -13 20 16; Cet

V = 15.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, very small, round, weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms a quadrilateral with three mag 14 stars, all within 2'.  Located 3.5' SW of a mag 9.5 SAO 147324.

 

IC 27, misidentified as NGC 135 in the RNGC and PGC, lies 20' ESE.  It appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 26 = J. 1-18, along with IC 27 and 28, on 4 Nov 1891.  This galaxy was discovered earlier by Francis Leavenworth on 2 Oct 1886 and reported in list I-5 (later NGC 135).  His rough position, though, is ~2 minutes too far west, but the identification is secure based on his sketch.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 135 around 1899 (repeated in the IC 2 notes) though Dreyer failed to equate NGC 135 and IC 26.  So, IC 26 is likely an duplicate entry for NGC 135 (or vice versa).  See NGC 135 for more.

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IC 27 = LEDA 143572

00 33 06.2 -13 22 17; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; very faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness.  A mag 12.2 star is 2' E.

 

In a trio with PGC 143569 situated 2.6' NW and IC 28 5' S. I was surprised the PGC was brighter (higher surface brightness) than either of the ICs.  It appeared faint, small, round, 0.3' diameter.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

The RNGC misidentifies IC 27 as NGC 135.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 27 = J. 1-19, along with IC 28, on 4 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, ill-defined, slightly elongated along the diurnal movement, 20" long, brighter center."  PGC and RNGC misidentify IC 27 as NGC 135, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar.  PGC 143572 is not identified as IC 27 in HyperLeda.

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IC 28 = LEDA 169992

00 33 08.7 -13 27 22; Cet

V = 15.2;  Size 0.3'x0.2';  PA = 85°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; extremely faint, small, round, 20", diffuse, very low surface brightness.  Located 6' NE of mag 8.5 HD 2957.  IC 27 is 5' N.  Faintest in a trio with PGC 143569.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 28 = J. 1-20, along with IC 27, on 4 Nov. 1891.  His position is accurate. HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 16992 as IC 29.

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IC 29 = MCG +00-02-072 = CGCG 383-036 = PGC 2042

00 34 10.8 -02 10 39; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  First in a quartet with IC 30 5.7' NNE.  The light-travel time is ~750 million years, so a pretty distant group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 29 = J. 1-21, along with IC 30, 32 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 30 = MCG +00-02-074 = PGC 2050

00 34 14.7 -02 05 04; Cet

V = 15.1;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  PA = 23°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; extremely faint and small, 12" (probably the core only).  The galaxy was only occasionally visible though confirmed.  Second and probably faintest in a quartet of IC galaxies with IC 29 5.7' SSW.

 

With a redshift z between 0.79 and .082 (depending on the source), this galaxy has a light-travel time of just over 1 billion years.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 30 = J. 1-22, along with IC 29, 32 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate. This is one of the 5 most distant galaxies discovered visually in the NGC/IC.

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IC 31 = UGC 340 = MCG +02-02-021 = PGC 2062

00 34 24.6 +12 16 06; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 1.6'x0.3';  PA = 89°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; faint, thin edge-on ~6:1 E-W and 1' in length.  Sometimes only a small brighter core was visible.  A mag 10.8 star is 4' SSW and a mag 12.5 star is 3.5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 31 = J. 2-508 on 28 Nov 1893.  His position and description ("faint, elongated E-W, pale uniform surf br.") matches UGC 340.

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IC 32 = MCG +00-02-080 = PGC 2096

00 35 01.7 -02 08 30; Cet

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 1°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, extremely small, round, 12" diameter.  Forms a close pair with IC 33 just 0.9' E.  IC 32 is collinear with two mag 14/14.5 stars 1.4' WNW and 3.3' WNW. The duo is 12' following IC 29 and 30, forming a quartet.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 32 = J. 1-23, along with IC 29, 30 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate to within 30".

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IC 33 = MCG +00-02-082 = PGC 2101

00 35 05.2 -02 08 16; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; similar or slightly fainter than IC 32, just 0.9' W.  Appeared extremely to very faint, round, 12" diameter, no structure.  Last in a quartet with IC 29, 30 and 32.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 33 = J. 1-24, along with IC 29, 30 and 32, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 34 = UGC 351 = MCG +01-02-032 = CGCG 409-044 = PGC 2134

00 35 36.4 +09 07 27; Psc

V = 12.6;  Size 2.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 156°

 

24" (9/1/16): at 200x; fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x0.6', bright core.  A mag 15 star is 1.4' S of center, just off the south end.  Forms a pair with UGC 353 7.7' S.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 34 = Sf. 97 = Sw. 9-1 on 22 Oct 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 and Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 18 Sep 1889 and reported it as new in his 9th list.  Both Safford's and Swift's position are good and both are credited in the IC.

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IC 35 = UGC 374 = MCG +02-02-024 = CGCG 434-026 = PGC 2246

00 37 39.9 +10 21 28; Psc

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 18°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; faint, fairly small, roundish, 30" diameter, low surface brightness.  Appears as a diffuse glow with no core or nucleus.  Situated 1.6' SW of a mag 10.2 star.  Two mag 13.7 and 15.3 stars are 2' and 3' SW, with the galaxy on a line, along with the mag 10 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 35 = J. 2-509 on 6 Jan 1894.

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IC 36 = LEDA 138202

00 37 49.6 -15 26 29; Cet

Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint but very small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Unusual appearance with a stellar nucleus surrounded by a small, fairly low surface brightness halo.  A mag 13.7 star is 50" NE.  IC 38 lies 12' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 36 = J. 1-25 on 25 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 138202 as IC 36.

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IC 37 = MCG -03-02-029 = PGC 2299

00 38 34.2 -15 21 31; Cet

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 158°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 260x and 375x; very faint, small, round, very low even surface brightness glow, ~20" diameter.  Required care to pick out. A mag 12.2 star is 1.6' NE.  IC 37 is the fainter of a physical pair with IC 38 3.8' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 37 = J. 1-26, along with IC 38, on 25 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate within 30".

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IC 38 = MCG -03-02-030 = PGC 2311

00 38 38.8 -15 25 11; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.75'x0.55';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 65°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 260x; faint, small, round, low even surface brightness, 25" diameter.  Can just hold with averted against a fairly bright sky background.  Companion IC 37 (same redshift z = .054) lies 3.8' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 38 = J. 1-27, along with IC 37, on 25 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate to within 30".

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IC 39 = NGC 178 = VIII Zw 34 = MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349

00 39 08.4 -14 10 26; Cet

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175°

 

See observing notes for NGC 178.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 39 = J. 1-28 on 26 Aug 1892.  His position matches MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349.  This galaxy was discovered first by Ormond Stone on 3 Nov 1885.  Stone's rough position for LM 1-7 (later NGC 178) is 1.5 min too far west, but his description and sketch (examined by Harold Corwin) matches this galaxy.  Herbert Howe later searched for NGC 178 and measured an accurate position in 1898-99 (repeated in the IC 2 notes), though Dreyer failed to equate NGC 178 and IC 39.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 40 = UGC 413 = MCG +00-02-106 = CGCG 383-056 = PGC 2376

00 39 21.4 +02 27 22; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 14°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.3', very small bright core.  Located on the south side of the NGC 182 group (24' SE of NGC 182).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 40 = J. 2-510 on 8 Jan 1894.  His position is just off the northeast side of the galaxy.

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IC 41 = LEDA 138206

00 39 40.4 -14 10 28; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 162°

 

24" (9/30/16): at 282x; faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, ~20"x15".  Located 3.7' N of NGC 207 and 7.8' E of NGC 178.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 41 = J. 1-29 on 26 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate so there is no doubt about the identification.  Nevertheless MCG misidentifies MCG -03-02-035 (= NGC 207) as IC 41.  As a result, the PGC incorrectly equates IC 41 and NGC 207.  See NGC 207 for more identification errors.

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IC 42 = MCG -03-02-036 = PGC 2463 = LEDA 911417

00 41 05.8 -15 25 41; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 56°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; very faint, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", low even surface brightness. Two mag 14 and 15 stars are 1' S and 2' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 42 = J. 1-26 on 25 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 43 = UGC 448 = MCG +05-02-040 = CGCG 500-072 = LGG 014-017 = PGC 2536

00 42 22.1 +29 38 30; And

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 117°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, 1' diameter, broad concentration, contains a brighter core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 10.7 star is 3.4' SE.  IC 45 is a very faint pair of stars (mag 15.2/15.7 at ~17"), ~3' ENE.  UGC 449, situated 3.5' N, appeared very faint, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 36"x15", low even surface brightness.  UGC 449 is misidentified as IC 45 in most sources.

 

17.5" (10/5/02): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.7', broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A faint stellar nucleus was visible with direct vision.  Located 3.4' NW of a mag 10.4 star.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 43 = Big. 106 on 15 Nov 1889 and noted "diffuse, with a stellar condensation, and seems slightly eccentric."

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IC 44 = NGC 223 = UGC 450 = MCG +00-02-129 = PGC 2527

00 42 15.8 +00 50 44; Cet

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 62°

 

See observing notes for NGC 223.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 44 = Sw. 10-1 on 12 Nov 1890 and reported "eF; S; R; bet 2 st." His position is ~2' north of NGC 233 Dreyer either assumed it was new or just missed the equivalence.  In any case, NGC 223 = IC 44.  See NGC 223 for more.

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IC 45

00 42 36.4 +29 39 17; And

V = 15.2/15.7

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; very faint pair of mag 15/15.5 stars (less than 20" separation) situated 3' ENE of IC 43.

 

UGC, MCG, PGC and RC3 (and Megastar) misidentify UGC 449, situated 3.5' due north of IC 43, as IC 45.  This galaxy appeared very faint, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 36"x15", low even surface brightness.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 45 = Big. 107, along with IC 43, on 15 Nov 1889.  As reported by Corwin and Thompson, Bigourdan's position for IC 43 is good, but there is nothing at his estimated position for Big. 107.  A decade later, he remeasured IC 43 and could not find Big. 107, but logged a possible cluster nearby.  At his measured position is a mag 15/15.5 double star.  UGC, MCG, PGC and RC3 (and Megastar) misidentify UGC 449, situated 3.5' due north of IC 43, as IC 45.

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IC 46 = CGCG 479-063 = PGC 2575 = LEDA 1802380

00 42 58.0 +27 15 13; And

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 87°

 

24" (10/9/21): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, broad weak concentration with no distinct core, but occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Decent surface brightness and quite easy.  Collinear and equidistant with 2 mag 14.5 stars 1.5' NE and 3' NE.  At low power (124x), a very scattered group of 8 mag 9-10 stars extends to the SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 46 = J. 2-511 on 5 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 48 = IC 1577 = MCG -01-03-001 = MCG -02-03-001 = PGC 2603

00 43 34.5 -08 11 11; Cet

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 171°

 

18" (12/17/11): at 288x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright 15" core surrounded by a much fainter 35" halo.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 48 = IC 1577 on 30 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while sweeping for comets.  He first reported in his notebook "Picked up a smallish pB neb." He worked out an accurate postion using the nearby offset star HD 3939 and called the nebula "pB, S, R, gbM to a stellar nucleus 13m."  His position for 1888 (published in AN 3097) was very accurate, but Dreyer erroneously precessed the declination (to 1880 coordinates) 18' too far south.  Dreyer's IC description “pF, S (? var brightness)” is a brief summary of Barnard’s comments in AN 3097.

 

As far as IC 1577, Dreyer’s description reads “pB, S, R, gradually brighter in the middle, stell N”.  This is identical to Barnard’s logbook description on 30 Nov 1888. Furthermore, the IC position (00h 37m 31s -08° 54.3’ in 1860 coordinates) is identical to Barnard’s logbook position of 00h 38m 56s  -08° 45’ (for 1888.0).  I assume Barnard sent this notebook data with a poor position to Dreyer after 1894.  Perhaps he scanned through his old notebooks looking for new nebulae and forgot about his earlier announcement. Whatever happened, it seems clear that IC 1577 = IC 48, both from his 30 Nov 1888 discovery.

 

Barnard believed IC 48 and IC 356 were variable nebulae ("Two Probably Variable Nebulae" in AN 3097, 1892) and wrote "On November 30, 1888 I discovered a small pretty bright nebula in Cetus [IC 48] and was surprised from the brightness of the nebula, to find that it was not in any catalogue.  I carefully measured its position with the micrometer, and examined it the next night, suspecting it to be a comet.  No motion being detected it was observed further.  I have a very distinct recollection of the object and from my description I would estimate that it was between 9th and 10th magnitude.  In its center was a very small stellar nucleus of the 13th mag.  Not having seen the nebula in my subsequent sweeps in that neighborhood, I was led in 1891 to examine its position with the 12-inch.  The nebula was found with some difficulty.  It was extremely faint, and was only identified by the aid of the comparison star of the previous observation.  This was November 22, 1891.  I estimated it to be 13.5 magnitude, 1/2' in diameter, with perhaps a faint nucleus."

 

The galaxy was photographed 6 times between 1915 and 1919 at the Helwan Observatory in Egypt and reported in 1921 as displaying no variability.

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IC 49 = UGC 468 = MCG +00-03-003 = CGCG 384-003 = PGC 2617

00 43 56.1 +01 51 01; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 107°

 

24" (9/22/17): at 375x: faint to fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 45"x35", slight brighter core region but overall low surface brightness.  At moments it appeared a bit more elongated, perhaps 4:3 or 50"x35".  A mag 14.4 star is 2.5' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 49 = Sw. 10-2 on 18 Sep 1890 and reported "eeeF; pS; R; eee diff.  Faintest object ever seen here [at Warner Observatory]."  His position is accurate.  This statement surprises me as I've observed much fainter galaxies that Swift discovered in Draco.

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IC 50 = MCG -02-03-010 = PGC 2698

00 46 05.7 -09 30 11; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 168°

 

24" (9/30/16): at 282x; fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  Situated within a triangle formed by mag 9.1 HD 4306 10' WSW, mag 8.5 HD 4435 7.5' SE and mag 9.7 HD 4410 4' NE.  The latter star has two wide 13.5-14 companions.  In addition a mag 11.2 star is 2' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 50 = J. 1-32 on 27 Sep 1892.  He noted "faint, appears as a mag 13 star surrounded by nebulosity" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 51 = Arp 230 = MCG -02-03-011 = PGC 2710

00 46 24.2 -13 26 32; Cet

Size 1.3'x1.2';  PA = 30°

 

17.5" (12/11/99): at 280x, faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW edge [52" from center].  Located 28' E of mag 7.6 SAO 147425.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 51 = J. 1-33 on 30 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, S, bM, slightly mottled."

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IC 52 = UGC 494 = MCG +0-03-005 = CGCG 410-007 = PGC 2834

00 48 23.8 +04 05 31; Psc

V = 14.6;  Size 0.95'x0.35';  PA = 95°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 322x; faint, elongated 2:1 E-W, 30"x15", slightly brighter core and nucleus with faint extensions.  Situated within a group of stars and equidistant from two mag 10 stars 3' W and 3' N. A mag 12.5 star is 0.9' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 52 = J. 1-34 on 19 Aug 1892.  His position is within 1' and the identification is secure.

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IC 53 = UGC 516 = MCG +02-03-005 = CGCG 435-011 = PGC 2951

00 50 40.8 +10 36 01; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 94°

 

24" (9/8/18): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, fairly small.  The galaxy initially appeared elongated 4:3 or 3:2 E-W, ~30"x20" and brighter along the major axis, but then I realized there was a faint star [mag 15.7] at the western end of the galaxy that enhanced the elongation.  IC 53 is located 21' W of STF 67, an excellent 9.0/9.6 pair at 2.3" that was easily resolved with plenty of black space between.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 53 = Sw. 10-3 on 25 Sep 1890 and recorded "eeeF pS; R; B * in field south.  Others suspected."  His position is about 3' too far northwest, but there are no other nearby galaxies and the description fits (a mag 8.5 star is 11' S).

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IC 55 = MCG +01-03-006 = CGCG 410-013 = PGC 3025

00 51 42.4 +07 43 07; Psc

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  PA = 175°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 N-S, ~30"x12", very small bright core.  A mag 13.7 star is ~40" to the SE.  Located 15' W of mag 8.6 HD 5075.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 55 = J. 2-512 on 10 Nov 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 56 = MCG -02-03-030 = Kaz 3 = PGC 3014

00 51 29.9 -12 50 39; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 0.75'x0.7';  PA = 9°

 

24" (9/23/22): at 285x and 325x; very faint low surface brightness patch, round, very diffuse with no core, 25"-30" diameter.  Located 7.6' NE of mag 8.0 HD 4917.  A mag 10.2 star is 4' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 56 = J. 1-35 on 2 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 57 = UGC 559 = MCG +02-03-010 = CGCG 435-019 = PGC 3229

00 54 48.5 +11 50 28; Psc

V = 14.6;  Size 0.9'x0.8'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; pretty faint, round, 20"-25" diameter, small brighter center, faint halo. A mag 15.5 star is off the SW side. IC 57 forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triange with a mag 11.3 star 5' W and a two mag 12 stars 5' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 57 = J. 2-513 on 2 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate to within 30".

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IC 58 = MCG -02-03-041 = PGC 3257

00 55 02.4 -13 40 41; Cet

Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 105°

 

24" (9/23/22): at 325x; faint but easily visible, elongated nearly 2:1 ~E-W, ~30"x18", very small brighter nucleus.  Bracketed by a mag 14.5 star [50" ESE] and a mag 15 star [1.2' NW].  IC 60 lies 24' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 58 = J. 1-36 on 23 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 59 = Ced 4a = Sh 2-185 = LBN 620 = vdB 5a

00 57 14 +61 10.8; Cas

Size 10'x5'

 

18" (12/22/11): best view was unfiltered at 108x.  Appears as a faint, large, irregular glow, roughly 8'x5'. Elongated E-W and extends to a group of a half-dozen stars at the NE end.  This group of stars is also possibly involved with the haze.  There is a slightly brighter patch on the south side.  Located 25' N of Gamma Cas.

 

18" (7/15/07): this large reflection nebula just 20' N of Gamma Cas (Navi) has a low even surface brightness and appears as a large oval-shaped hazy region ~6'x4' and elongated ~N-S.  Fainter of pair with IC 63 located 25' SE.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): located 20' N of Gamma Cassiopeia.  This emission nebula is larger than IC 63 but has a lower surface brightness.  Easy with averted vision and appears large, elongated ~N-S, with a fairly even surface brightness.  IC 63 lies 20' SE.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, visible with averted only.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

Max Wolf and E.E. Barnard discovered IC 59 and 63 independently on photographs taken in 1893-94.  Max Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894) with the title "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).  The image was probably taken towards the end of 1893, though no specific date is given.  E.E. Barnard first photographed the field on 2 Feb 1894 with the exposure of 3 hrs.  In an article titled "Photographic Nebulosities and star clusters connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astro-Physics, Vol XIII, No. 3, March 1894), he added "before beginning this [second] exposure [on 6 Feb 1894], I carefully examined the sky close to Gamma with the 12-inch and a power of 80, with a field of 42'.  The sky was fine.  It was with the utmost difficulty that I could see these two nebulae.  They were excessively dilute and faint, and never would have detected if the photographic plate [his first exposure on 2 Feb] had not revealed them."

 

Isaac Roberts photographed the Gamma Cas area earlier on 17 Jan 1890, but his image shows no nebulosity and he failed to mention any in the field.

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IC 60 = MCG -02-03-049 = PGC 3324

00 56 04.2 -13 21 28; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

24" (9/23/22): at 285x and 325x; faint, failry small, slightly elongated, very small brighter core and nucleus, ~25"x20".  IC 58 lies 24' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 60 = J. 1-37 on 30 Aug 1892.  His position matches PGC 3324.

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IC 61 = UGC 589 = MCG +01-03-009 = PGC 3408

00 57 07.2 +07 30 25; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x1.0'

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; between faint and fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~20" diameter, stellar nucleus.  Located 4' SE of mag 9.0 HD 5503 and 6.6' NNE of mag 9.3 HD 5504.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 61 = J. 2-514 on 10 Nov 1892.  His position matches UGC 589.

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IC 62 = UGC 606 = MCG +02-03-021 = CGCG 435-029 = PGC 3507

00 58 43.9 +11 48 29; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 25°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly low surface brightness, elongated 4:3 or 5:4 SSW-NNE, occasional sharp stellar nucleus.  The halo has an irregular surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is 2' W and a mag 15 star is 2.5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 62 = J. 2-515 on 2 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.  The MCG doesn't label MCG +02-03-021 as IC 62.

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IC 63 = Ced 4b = Sh 2-185 = LBN 622 = vdB 5b

00 59 29 +60 54 40; Cas

Size 10'x3'

 

18" (7/15/07): unusual triangular or wedge-shaped nebula just 20' NE of Gamma Cas.  At 115x appears fairly large, elongated SW-NE, ~6' diameter, with the brighter vertex at the west end. The southern edge, which extends towards the SW, is slightly brighter and more sharply defined.  The interior of the wedge is slightly fainter with subtle brightness variations.  The OIII and UHC filter dimmed the object.  IC 63 is brighter than IC 59, which is found 20' N of Gamma.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): distinct fan-shaped nebulosity extending east and NE with the vertex at the west end.  The southern border (extending E-W) has a sharper edge.  Brighter than nearby IC 59 in the field 20' NW.  Located 20' NE of Gamma Cassiopeiae.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, fan-shaped.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

Max Wolf and E.E. Barnard discovered IC 59 and 63 independently on photographs taken in 1893-94.  Max Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894) with the title "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).  The image was probably taken towards the end of 1893, though no specific date is given.  E.E. Barnard first photographed the field on 2 Feb 1894 with the exposure of 3 hrs.  In an article titled "Photographic Nebulosities and star clusters connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astro-Physics, Vol XIII, No. 3, March 1894), he added "before beginning this [second] exposure [on 6 Feb 1894], I carefully examined the sky close to Gamma with the 12-inch and a power of 80, with a field of 42'.  The sky was fine.  It was with the utmost difficulty that I could see these two nebulae.  They were excessively dilute and faint, and never would have detected if the photographic plate [his first exposure on 2 Feb] had not revealed them."

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IC 64 = UGC 613 = MCG +04-03-031 = CGCG 480-030 = PGC 3550

00 59 24.4 +27 03 33; Psc

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  PA = 148°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~30"x20", low surface brightness, ill-defined slightly brighter core region.  Member of the NGC 326 group at a distance of ~625 million l.y.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 64 = J. 2-516 on 5 Dec 1893.  His postion matches UGC 613.  The CGCG doesn't identify 480-030 as IC 64.

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IC 65 = UGC 625 = MCG +08-03-005 = CGCG 551-004 = LGG 016-003 = PGC 3635

01 00 55.6 +47 40 55; And

V = 12.8;  Size 3.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 155°

 

17.5" (9/1/02): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 2.5'x0.6'.  Contains a slightly brighter, bulging core.  The outer tips fades into the background, so it was difficult to estimate the full extent.  A faint star is just off the following side of the core and a pair of mag 14 stars is off the southeast extension.  Located in a rich star field 8.5' WSW of mag 8 HD 5982.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 3.5'x1.0', weak concentration to a brighter middle but no nucleus.  Several faint stars are near including a mag 14 star at the northwest tip and two mag 14 stars are situated on either side of the south-southeast end.  A brighter mag 12 star is 3.5' NNW of center.  Located 8.6' WSW of mag 7.8 SAO 36857.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 65 = Sw. 10-4 on 25 Sep 1890 and recorded "eF; pL; vE; 2 B st. in field; one f[ollowing] the other s[outh]."

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IC 66 = UGC 623 = MCG +05-03-033 = CGCG 501-059 = LGG 014-039 = PGC 3606

01 00 32.5 +30 47 50; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125°

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Located 8' N of NGC 338 and 18' SW of IC 69 in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (SW of the Pisces Chain).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 66 = Big. 108 on 12 Nov 1890 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.

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IC 69 = MCG +05-03-041 = CGCG 501-066 = LGG 014-041 = PGC 3666 = PGC 1929122

01 01 23.8 +31 02 29; Psc

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', low even surface brightness.  Located 4' SW of mag 8.4 SAO 54358.  IC 66 lies 18' SW.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 69 = Sf. 66 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "F, iF, little brighter in the middle."

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IC 73 = CGCG 410-029 = UM 84 = PGC 3842

01 04 53.1 +04 46 03; Psc

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 149°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 260x; faint, small, round, 0.3' diameter.  :pcated 16' SW of 77 Psc, a bright, wide double star (STF 90 = 6.8/7.6 at 33").

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 73 = J. 1-39 on 20 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate to within 30".

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IC 74 = CGCG 410-030 = PGC 3897

01 05 56.0 +04 05 25; Psc

V = 14.5;  Size 0.55'x0.4';  PA = 5°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 327x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated, 25"x20", very small brighter nucleus, faint halo.  Located 7.5' SSE of mag 7.3 HD 6464, which is just outside the field at this power.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 74 = J. 1-40 on 19 Aug 1892.  His position is 1' too bar north, but the identification is certain.

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IC 75 = UGC 684 = MCG +02-03-035 = CGCG 435-043 = PGC 3959

01 07 11.6 +10 50 13; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 30°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, moderate surface brightness, slightly elongated ~4:3 N-S, ~30"x24", irregular surface brightness.  A faint star [mag 15.4] is superimposed on the south side, ~10" from center.  A mag 13 star is 1.7' S and a mag 14 star is a similar distance north.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 75 = J. 2-517 on 17 Oct 1892.  His position matches IC 75.  MCG doesn't label MCG +02-03-035 as IC 75.

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IC 76 = MCG -01-04-001 = PGC 4035

01 08 11.7 -04 33 16; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 0.75'x0.35';  PA = 115°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, surprisingly easy with a fairly good surface brightness to the central region.  Initially it seemed only slightly elongated. But with averted vision, there was a much lower surface elongated halo WNW-SSE, ~35"x15", that was slightly misaligned with the core.  A mag 13.3 star is 1.8' WNW and a mag 10.4 star is 6' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 76 = J. 2-518 on 14 Dec 1892 and noted "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, slightly brighter middle.  His position is accurate.

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IC 77 = MCG -03-04-012 = PGC 73653

01 08 43.7 -15 25 15; Cet

Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (11/22/03): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Only visible intermittently.  Located just 2' SW of IC 80 in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 77 = J. 1-41, along with IC 80 on 31 Aug 1892.  Harold Corwin notes that Javelle's positions are unambiguous although MCG misidentified IC 80 (the double galaxy MCG -03-04-008/009) as IC 77.  The original PGC applied the two MCG numbers to IC 77 and IC 80.

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IC 78 = MCG -03-04-010 = PGC 4079

01 08 47.6 -15 50 34; Cet

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 124°

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, moderately large, fairly low surface brightness with weak concentration.  Initially just a 40" core was noticed but with extended viewing larger extensions increased the total size to ~1.2'x0.6'.  Possible member of AGC 151 or in a foreground group with IC 79 6.4' S and IC 82 10' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 78 = J. 1-42, along with IC 79 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 79 = MCG -03-04-011 = PGC 4082

01 08 49.7 -15 56 55; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", a mag 14 star is just off the NNE edge, 30" from center.  Located between IC 78 6.4' N and IC 82 5' SE in AGC 151 (or possibly a foreground cluster).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 79 = J. 1-43, along with IC 78 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 80 = MCG -03-04-008 = MCG -03-04-009 = SCG 8 = PGC 4072 = PGC 4071

01 08 51.1 -15 24 23; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 45°

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 40"x25", low even surface brightness.  This is a double system [nuclei separated by 11"] which was not resolved.  IC 80 itself forms a close pair with IC 77 2' SW in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 80 = J. 1-44, along with IC 77, on 31 Aug 1892.  Although Javelle's positions are unambiguous MCG misidentifies IC 80 as IC 77 and SIMBAD misidentifies MCG -03-04-012 = PGC 4070 as IC 80.

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IC 81 = MCG +00-04-015 = CGCG 385-010 = PGC 4127

01 09 22.3 -01 41 45; Cet

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  PA = 135°

 

24" (9/22/17): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, sharp stellar nucleus, surround by a small 15" halo that was better seen with averted vision.  A mag 13.2 is close southeast [0.8' from center].

 

Forms a pair with UGC 726 9.4' ESE.  The UGC appeared faint, moderately large, elongated NW-SE but irregular with a low surface brightness, weakly brighter center.  A mag 9.6 star is 5' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 81 = Sw. 7-2 on 18 Oct 1887 and reported "eF;, S; lE; * close nf."  His position is 2.8' WNW of CGCG 385-010 = PGC 4127.  Herbert Howe reobserved the galaxy in 1900 and reported, "I could find no "* close nf."  A star of mag 11 follows 3s, 0.3' south."  He also corrected the position, which was repeated in the IC notes/corrections section.  The MCG lists this galaxy (-00-04-013), but doesn't identify it as IC 81.

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IC 82 = MCG -03-04-013 = PGC 4103

01 09 05.8 -16 00 01; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 111°

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, low surface brightness.  Third in the 257x field close south of the core of AGC 151 with IC 79 5' NW and IC 78 10' NW.  Located 6' NW of a mag 10.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 82 = J. 1-45, along with IC 78 and 79, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 83 = MCG +00-04-021 = CGCG 385-015 = PGC 4182

01 10 29.8 +01 41 22; Cet

V = 14.6;  Size 0.65'x0.4';  PA = 114°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; faint, fairly low surface brightness, slightly elongated WNW-ENE, ~25"x20", very weak concentration.  A 20" pair of mag 14.2/14.6 stars is just off the NE side and nearly collinear with the galaxy.  IC 84 lies 14' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 83 = J.1-46, along with IC 84, on 5 Nov 1891.  His position is 1.3' too far northwest (similar offset error as IC 84), but the identification is certain.

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IC 84 = MCG +00-04-029 = CGCG 385-021 = PGC 4265

01 11 25.6 +01 38 25; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 11°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; at 375x; fairly faint, small roundish core with gradual weak concentration to the center.  The halo is faint, very diffuse, elongated N-S, ~30"x20".  A mag 12.6 star is 3' SE.  IC 83 lies 14' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 84 = J.1-47, along with IC 83, on 5 Nov 1891.  His position is 1.2' too far northwest (similar offset error as IC 83) and both identifications are certain.  The redshift of IC 84 is less than 1/2 that of IC 83, so the galaxies are unrelated.

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IC 86 = LEDA 165316

01 13 28.5 -16 14 30; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 142°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20"-24" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 86 = J. 1-48 on 2 Sep 1892.  His position matches PGC 165316, although both LEDA and SIMBAD fail to identify this galaxy as IC 86.

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IC 87 = MCG +00-04-048 = CGCG 385-038 = PGC 4454

01 14 15.8 +00 45 55; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (9/23/22): at 285x; very faint, round, low even surface brightness, just a dim patch of 20"-25" diameter.  IC 88 lies 4' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 87 = J. 2-519, along with IC 88, on 12 Dec 1893.  Both of his positions are offset about 30" to the northwest, so the identifications are certain.

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IC 88 = LEDA 1175571

01 14 31.3 +00 47 30; Cet

V = 15.3;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 128°

 

24" (9/23/22): at 285x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15", very low uniform surface brightness.  Located 2' W of a mag 11.2 star and 4' NE of IC 87.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 88 = J. 2-520, along with IC 87, on 12 Dec 1893.  Both of his positions are offset about 30" to the northwest, so the identifications are certain but MCG misidentified +00-04-049 as IC 88.  The correct galaxy is not in the MCG.  As a result, IC 88 is also misidentified in PGC and HyperLeda (as well as Megastar).

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IC 89 = NGC 446 = MCG +01-04-012 = CGCG 411-016 = PGC 4578

01 16 03.6 +04 17 38; Psc

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, prominent sharp bright core with a nearly stellar nucleus.  This galaxy is identified as IC 89 in UGC, CGCG and RC3.  NGC 446 lies 19' WSW and NGC 462 is 30' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 89 = J. 1-49 on 20 Aug 1892.  His position matches CGCG 411-016 = PGC 4578.  This galaxy is possibly identical to NGC 446, discovered by Marth on 23 Oct 1864.  Marth's position is 1.0 minute of RA west of IC 89.  UGC, CGCG, MCG and RC3 use IC 89 as the primary designation for this galaxy.  Karl Reinmuth also makes the equivalence NGC 446 = IC 89 and gives the IC position.  UGC, CGCG (411-010) and RNGC identify UGC 794 = PGC 4494 as NGC 446.  This galaxy is located 13 seconds of RA (time) east and 7' N of UGC 794, which would require random errors in both directions by Marth instead of a single digit error.

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IC 90 = MCG -01-04-023 = PGC 4606

01 16 30.3 -07 58 37; Cet

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x1.1'

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; relatively bright and well defined. round, ~40" diameter, good surface brightness, occasional very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14.7 star is 2' E.  Located 0.5° E of 37 Cet = 5.2/7.9 pair at 49".

 

 

N. M. Parrish discovered IC 90 on 2 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He noted "small bright middle nucleus." and the size estimated at 12".  Ormond Stone, who authored the paper, was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 91 = LEDA 1230543

01 18 39.4 +02 33 13; Cet

V = 15.2;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  PA = 63°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; very faint, small, 15"-20", diffuse, low even surface brightness except for perhaps a small brightening at the center. A small triangle of stars is 3' to 4' NW.  IC 91 is located 6' E of mag 7.6 HD 7855. 

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 91 = J. 2-521 on 8 Jan 1894.  His position is accurate.

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IC 92 = MCG +05-04-020 = CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780

01 19 48.4 +32 46 04; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 0°

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint, small.  A mag 15 star is 1' NW.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 472 = NGC 468.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 92 = Big. 115 on 2 Nov 1885 with the 12" refractor at Paris.  His position is a fairly close match with CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780.  This galaxy has been assumed to be identical to NGC 468, discovered by John Herschel on 22 Nov 1827.  Herschel's position was 4' S of the galaxy and as a result Dreyer added the comment in the IC "? different from h 98", indicating his uncertainty if IC 92 was the same object.

 

In March 2015, Harold Corwin checked Herschel's observing logs (in response to an inquiry from Courtney Seligman about the identity) and found that Herschel made an error in reducing the position of NGC 468 by 37 seconds (recording the wrong wire).  Once corrected, his position for h98 = NGC 468 is a close match with NGC 472 = UGC 870, a significantly brighter galaxy than IC 92.  So, IC 92 should be the single identity for this galaxy.  See NGC 468 for more.

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IC 93 = IC 1671 = MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724

01 19 02.3 -17 03 37; Cet

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170°

 

18" (11/13/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated at least 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.2', broad weak concentration.  The tips taper, though there is a strong impression of irregularities at the tips.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 1667 4.8' W.  The IC 1670 pair lies 15' N.

 

18" (12/18/06): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.75'x0.3', weak concentration, slightly asymmetric appearance at the ends.  IC 1667 lies 4.8' W.  Located 11' W of mag 8.5 HD 8061.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 93 = Sw. 9-2 on 28 Sep 1889 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; 8 mag * f 46 seconds and 1' north."  His position and description matches  MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724.  He found this galaxy again on 18 Dec 1895 and included it in list XI-18 (later IC 1671).  His position, though, was poor (30 seconds of time too large and 2.3' too far south), so Dreyer naturally assumed it was new.  But Swift's description ("p 7m * nf 47 sec") confirms IC 93 = IC 1671.

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IC 95 = LEDA 950887

01 19 17.9 -12 34 27; Cet

Size 0.55'x0.5'

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, very low surface brightness. Viewed well west of the meridian at a low altitude.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 95 = J. 1-50, along with IC 98, on 3 Nov 1891.  His position matches LEDA 950887, although LEDA doesn't recognize this number as IC 95.

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IC 96 = MCG +05-04-023 = CGCG 502-035 = PGC 4840

01 20 33.2 +29 37 01; Psc

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  PA = 43°

 

24" (10/1/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, ~30"x15", low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 1672 5' NNE.  The identification of IC 96 is very uncertain and the number may be a duplicate of IC 1672.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 96 = Sf. 69 on 1 Dec 1866 and recorded "pB, pS, very much brighter middle to a nucleus = 12-13m".  His position is 4.6' NW of CGCG 502-035.  Harold Corwin, Wolfgang Steinicke and NED identify CGCG 502-035 = PGC 4840 as IC 96, but not PGC or HyperLEDA.  But Safford's position is also 4.6' SW of IC 1672, so his object could be to either object.  Malcolm Thomson and Courtney Seligman favor IC 96 = IC 1672 as Safford only found one object and IC 1672 is roughly a magnitude brighter.  Also his description is a better match with IC 1672, which is not noticeably elongated and has a brighter nucleus.

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IC 97 = NGC 475 = PGC 4796

01 20 02.0 +14 51 40; Psc

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 475.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 97 = Big. 3-117 on 12 Oct 1888 while searching for NGC 475, which he misidentified as a star.  His position matches NGC 475, which was discovered by Marth on 3 Nov 1864.  The NGC position (supposedly an improved micrometric position from C.H.F. Peters) is 0.3 minutes of RA too far east, so Dreyer mistakenly assumed Big. 117 was a new object and catalogued it again as IC 97.  So, IC 97 = NGC 475, with discovery credit to Marth.

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IC 98 = MCG -02-04-027 = PGC 4869

01 20 54.9 -12 36 17; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; very faint, small, round, 20" diameter, diffuse, very low even surface brightness.  IC 95 is 24' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 98 = J. 1-51, along with IC 95, on 3 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 99 = MCG -02-04-034 = PGC 4997

01 22 27.4 -12 57 09; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; faint, small, round, 20" diameter, occasionally seems slightly elongated.  An extremely faint mag 15.7 star is just off the south edge.  Viewed well west of the meridian at fairly low altitude.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 99 = J. 1-52 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 100 = MCG -01-04-030 = PGC 5029

01 22 54.0 -04 38 35; Cet

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.75';  PA = 88°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; nearly moderately bright, oval elongated 4:3 E-W, 0.8'x0.6', good surface brightness, gradually increases to a very small bright core.  Located 12' SE of mag 8.3 HD 8292, with only a few faint stars in the field.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 100 = J. 2-522 on 14 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 101 = UGC 949 = MCG +02-04-036 = CGCG 436-039 = LGG 023-003 = PGC 5147

01 24 08.6 +09 55 50; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 127°

 

18" (12/3/05): faint hazy spot, irregularly round, ~20"-25" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' S.  Pair with fainter IC 102 5' SE.  Located 10' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 101 = J. 2-523, along with IC 102 and 114, and recorded "vF, E, about 1' long, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate taken by Keeler in 1898-1900 and catalogued as a new nebula (#28) in the 1908 Publications of Lick Observatory, Vol VIII.

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IC 102 = UGC 954 = CGCG 436-040 = PGC 5172

01 24 26.3 +09 53 12; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 111°

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, no details.  Marginal object that was just glimpsed as drifted through the field.  Located 8' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 102 = J. 2-524, along with IC 101 and 114, and recorded "eF, S, poorly defined, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate taken by Keeler in 1898-1900 and catalogued as a new nebula (#29) in the 1908 Publications of Lick Observatory, Vol VIII.

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IC 103 = UGC 963 = MCG +00-04-117 = CGCG 385-107 = WBL 043-001 = PGC 5192

01 24 36.4 +02 02 39; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 127°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 25"x20", quasi-stellar nucleus.  First in a triplet (WBL 043) with IC 105 3' NE and IC 109 9' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 103 = J. 1-53, along with IC 105 and 109, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, round, 10" diameter."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 105 = CGCG 385-109 = WBL 043-002 = PGC 5206

01 24 46.2 +02 04 31; Cet

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.25';  PA = 47°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25"x20".  A mag 12.8 star is 2.2' N and a mag 14.5 star is 1.3' SE.  In a trio (WBL 043) with IC 103 3' SW and IC 109 7' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 105 = J. 1-54, along with IC 103 and 109, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, round, 5" diameter, small central condensation."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 106 = NGC 530 = UGC 965 = MCG +00-04-119 = PGC 5210

01 24 41.7 -01 35 14; Cet

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 134°

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is at the SE end 0.9' from center.  Forms a pair with IC 1696 3' SE within AGC 194.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): moderately bright, edge-on NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 12 star is off the SE end.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 106 = Big. 3-119 on 16 Nov 1887.  This galaxy was discovered a year earlier by Lewis Swift and reported in his sixth list (Sw. 6-9 = NGC 530).  Swift's RA is 15 seconds too large, so Bigourdan and Dreyer missed the equivalence IC 106 = NGC 530 until the field was examined again in 1897 by Herbert Howe.  MCG identifies this galaxy as IC 106 only (NGC 530 is misidentified as MCG +00-04-122) but UGC states NGC 530 = IC 106.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 107 = IC 1700 = UGC 986 = MCG +02-04-041 = CGCG 436-047 = PGC 5271

01 25 24.7 +14 51 53; Psc

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  PA = 6°

 

24" (12/1/13): moderately to fairly bright, small, round, 20", high surface brightness.  Gradually increases towards the center, then a sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is at the southwest edge.  Brightest in a small trio with IC 1698 1.6' SSW and UGC 978 2.8' WNW.  IC 1704 lies 26' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 107 = Sw. 10-5 on 18 Sep 1890 and recorded "vF; vS; R; * close preceding."  His position is 19 seconds of RA west of UGC 986 = PGC 5271, the brightest of a trio, and this galaxy has a star "close preceding" matching his description.  Coincidentally, his poor position falls near UGC 978, the faintest in the trio, which is misidentified as IC 107 in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC 3 and NGC 2000, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar software.  

 

Stephane Javelle independently found PGC 5271 again on 18 Jan 1896 (along with IC 1698, IC 1704 and IC 1706), assumed it was new, and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1700.  Most sources identify UGC 986 as IC 1700 due to its unambiguous position, though by historical precedence IC 107 should be the primary designation.

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IC 108 = MCG -02-04-041 = PGC 5205

01 24 39.0 -12 38 08; Cet

Size 0.9'x0.25';  PA = 4°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint but not difficult, elongated nearly 3:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.2'.  Situated 4.5' SE of mag 9.4 HD 8562, which has a string of 3 stars extending south from it.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 108 = J. 1-55 on 3 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 109 = UGC 980 = MCG +00-04-128 = CGCG 385-117 = WBL 043-003 = PGC 5251

01 25 13.0 +02 04 01; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 90°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, small, slightly elongated, low surface brightness, 25" diameter, very weak concentration.  A mag 14.7 star is 1.6' W and a mag 15.4 star is off the west side [0.6' from center].  Third in a trio with IC 105 6.7' WNW and IC 103 9' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 109 = J. 1-56, along with IC 103 and 105, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "pretty bright, round, 10" diameter."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 112 = UGC 1008 = MCG +02-04-047 = CGCG 436-049 = PGC 5328

01 26 03.0 +11 26 35; Psc

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 128°

 

24" (9/22/22): at 325x and 375x; fairly faint, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, nearly even surface brightness, 30"x20".  Two mag 14/14.5 stars oriented NW-SE are off the NE side.  Several mag 11-12 stars are in an elongated group to the north.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 112 = J. 2-525 on 4 Dec 1893.  His position matches UGC 1008 to within 30" and the identification is certain.

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IC 113 = LEDA 3617669

01 26 25.5 +19 11 31; Psc

Size 0.35'x0.35'

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; very faint to faint, small, round, 15" diameter, low surface brightness.  Situated 2.7' NE of mag 5.4 Rho Psc and 5' SW of mag 5.5 94 Psc!  These stars are very bright and very distracting if within the field!  It was easy to place 94 Psc outside the edge of the field and with a little care Rho Psc could also be moved just outside the edge of the 10mm Zeiss Abbe Ortho.  IC 115 lies 7' ENE.  Located at a redshift-based light travel time of ~585 million years in the cluster AGC 195.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 113, along with IC 115, on 26 Jul 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "vF, 3' nf of * 5m [Rho Psc]" and measured an accurate positon based on the bright star.

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IC 114 = UGC 1015 = MCG +02-04-048 = CGCG 436-050 = PGC 5343

01 26 22.6 +09 54 36; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 150°

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, small, appears as a low surface brightness spot ~25" diameter, appears elongated but too faint for details.  A mag 13 star lies 1.8' W.  Located 30' NE of NGC 524 in a large group of galaxies.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 114 = J. 2-526, along with IC 101 and 102, and recorded "eF, vS, R, 20" diameter."

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IC 115 = MCG +03-04-039 = CGCG 459-054 = PGC 5395

01 26 54.4 +19 12 53; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, fairly even surface brightness.  Located 3.4' SE of mag 5.5 94 Piscium and 9.6' NE of mag 5.4 Rho Piscium.  IC 115 is the brightest cluster member of AGC 195.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 115, along with IC 113, on 26 Jul 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while examining whether the nearby bright stars were double.  He noted "vF, * 6m [94 Psc] 3.5' npp" and measured an accurate offset with respect to the star.

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IC 116 = MCG -01-04-049 = PGC 5389

01 26 50.6 -04 58 57; Cet

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 127°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; uneven surface brightness and perhaps brighter along part of the western edge.  A mag 12 star is 1.6' E and a mag 13 star is 1.6' NNW. IC 118 lies 11' ESE.

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, easily visible with direct vision, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, edge of halo ill-defined (like a face-on spiral), gradual fairly weak concentration with a slightly brighter core and an occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with a mag 12 star 1.5' E and a mag 13 star 1.5' NW.  IC 118 lies 11' E.

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration, no distinct core.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 116 = J. 1-57, along with IC 118, on 14 Dec 1892.  His position matches PGC 5389.

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IC 117 = NGC 560 = UGC 1036 = MCG +00-04-151 = CGCG 385-145 = PGC 5430

01 27 25.4 -01 54 47; Cet

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 178°

 

See observing notes for NGC 560.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 117 = J. 1-58 on 6 Nov 1891.  There is nothing at his position but Harold Corwin discovered that Javelle misidentified his offset star.  Once corrected, Javelle's offsets point directly to NGC 558.  So, IC 117 = NGC 558.  See Corwin's write-up on this error.

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IC 118 = MCG -01-04-053 = PGC 5446

01 27 36.0 -04 59 51; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, very low surface brightness, difficult but confirmed with a few very good pops.  Brighter IC 116 is 11' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 118 = J. 2-527, along with IC 116, on 14 Dec 1892.  His position matches PGC 5446.

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IC 119 = UGC 1047 = MCG +00-04-157 = CGCG 385-149 = PGC 5465

01 27 55.0 -02 02 26; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  PA = 77°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, low even surface brightness, 0.6'x0.2'.  The view is significantly compromised by mag 7.0 HD 8943 just 1.6'E!  Also mag 8.6 HD 8930 is 3' N.  Member of AGC 194 with NGC 564 10' N, NGC 560 11' NW, NGC 558 11' WNW and IC 120 8' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 119 = J. 1-59 on 6 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, elongated E-W, without condensation."  His position matches UGC 1047 in AGC 194.

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IC 120 = CGCG 385-152 = WBL 047-004 = PGC 5484

01 28 13.0 -01 54 56; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 138°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 30"x12.  Located 6.6' ESE of NGC 564 and 7.7' NNE of mag 7.0 HD 8943.

 

Édouard Stephan discovered IC 120 = J. 1-60 on 4 Nov 1875 during an observation of NGC 560 and 564.  His approximate position was 1.5' to the NE, matching the offsets of the two NGCs. For some reason he never measured an accurate position or published the discovery.  Stephane Javelle discovered it again on 3 Dec 1891 (first list, #60) and recorded "faint, small, diffuse, appears as a whitish spot, without condensation.

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IC 121 = UGC 1053 = MCG +00-04-159 = CGCG 385-154 = PGC 5492

01 28 21.8 +02 30 47; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  PA = 108°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 or 5:3 E-W, 0.6'x0.4', slightly brighter elongated core.  The galaxy forms the western vertex with a near equilateral triangle with a 22" pair of mag 14.5 stars 3' ENE and a slightly wider pair 3' SE.  Mag 10 HD 9011 is 6' ESE and IC 123 (similar redshift) is 8.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 121 = J. 2-528, along with IC 123, on 6 Jan 1894.  Both positions are offset ~1.3' too far NNW, but there is no doubt on the identifications.

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IC 123 = MCG +00-04-161 = CGCG 385-157 = Ark 49 = UM 105 = PGC 5524

01 28 51.5 +02 26 47; Cet

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 43°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated, compact appearance,  0.4'x0.3', fairly even surface brightness.  Situated just 2.5' SSE of mag 10 HD 9011 and the star slightly affects the view.  IC 121 lies 8.5' NW.  The pair lies at a similar redshift.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 123 = J. 2-529, along with IC 121, on 6 Jan 1894.  Both positions are offset ~1.3' too far NNW, but there is no double on the identifications.

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IC 126 = UGC 1071 = CGCG 385-162 = PGC 5577

01 29 47.9 -01 59 01; Cet

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (11/15/22): at 260x and 327x; faint, small, round, 20" diameter (core only).  Just visible continuously with averted.  Located less than 1' N of a mag 12.6 star and 13' W of NGC 577, in the eastern outskirts of AGC 194.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 126 = J. 1-64 on 6 Jan 1891.  His position matches UGC 1071, situated 13' W of NGC 577.

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IC 127 = MCG -01-04-057 = PGC 5581

01 29 47.6 -06 58 48; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  PA = 110°

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  The view is somewhat hampered by a mag 12.5 star that is superimposed on the south edge of the southeast extension.  The galaxy extends mostly NW of this star.  Situated 4.3' WNW of a mag 9.7 star and 24' WSW of NGC 584 in a group (LGG 027 = USGC S056).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 127 = J. 2-530 on 14 Dec 1892.  He noted "faint, pretty small, diffuse, very close to a mag 11.5 star" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 128 = MCG -02-04-063 = PGC 5659

01 31 23.9 -12 37 28; Cet

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165°

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; very faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  IC 128 is the fainter of a pair with IC 129 2.6' SE.  IC 128 appears distorted on the DSS with a tidal plume to the northwest.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 128 = J. I-65, along with IC 129, on 3 Jan 1891. He noted "faint, round, with stellar nucleus" and measured an accurate position.  The MCG incorrectly equates -02-04-062 with IC 128, instead of -02-04-063.

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IC 129 = MCG -02-05-001 = PGC 5675

01 31 31.2 -12 39 16; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  PA = 78°

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 WSW-ENE, 24"x16" (central region), contains a small bright nucleus that gradually increases to the center.  Forms a physical pair with IC 128 2.6' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 121 = J. 2-528, along with IC 123 = J. 2-529, on 6 Jan 1894.  Both positions are offset about 1.2' too far NNW, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 130 = MCG -03-05-001 = PGC 5671

01 31 28.7 -15 35 30; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, fairly small, diffuse, 20"-25" diameter, weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms the southern vertex of a flat triangle with a mag 13.3 star 3.5' NNE and a mag 12.2 star 5.7' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 130 = J. 1-67 on 2 Sep 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 131 = M33-A29 = BCLMP 290

01 33 14.6 +30 44 56; Tri

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, quasi-stellar knot to the southeast of a N-S pair of stars (this pair is also collinear with NGC 592 located 6' S of IC 131).  But, according to Harold Corwin this compact HII region was assumed to be a mag 13.5 star by Bigourdan and IC 131 refers to two very small star clouds close following (seen in the 10/25/97 observation below, but missed this time). The nearly stellar knot I observed is catalogued as BCLMP 290B.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.  This HII region is located 10' WNW of the center of M33 near a wide pair [50"] of mag 11/12 stars.  A mag 14 star is nearby and at first I thought this star was IC 131 (on the DSS this 14th magnitude "star" is a compact HII region and was also described as a star by Bigourdan).  Collinear with IC 133 8' N and IC 132 11.5' N.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 131 = Big. 122, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 132 = BCLMP 638

01 33 15.8 +30 56 45; Tri

Size 0.8'x0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): this faint HII complex in M33 appears as a 20"-25" knot, situated just 1' N of a 10" pair of mag 13 stars and 1.5' W of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 133 lies 3.5' S.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint but easily visible HII knot of 20" diameter. Located 1' N of a pair of mag 13 stars at 10" separation and 1.6' W of a mag 9 star.  Forms the northern member of a pair of HII regions with IC 133 3.4' S.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): very faint knot.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 132 = Big. 123, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 133 = M33-A137 = BCLMP 624

01 33 15.8 +30 53 05; Tri

V = 14.3

 

18" (12/8/07): this star cloud/HII complex appeared as a faint, fairly large diffuse patch, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4'.  Located 15' NW of the center of M33 and 4' SSW of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 132 lies 3.5' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint, diffuse, hazy HII region of 35" diameter at the NW end of M33 15' NW of the center.  Forms a "pair" with IC 132 3.4' N.  This object is larger than IC 132 at times with averted vision but has a lower surface brightness.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 133 = Big. 124, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan's position is "toward the southern end where there appears to be a fairly compact HII region."

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IC 135 = M33-A100

01 34 15.8 +30 37 11; Tri

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, ~1.0'x0.5'.  Located off the ESE side of the core of M33 on the opposite side of the core from NGC 595.

 

17.5" (7/5/86 and 10/25/97): fairly faint, fairly small, 1' diameter.  This HII region is located 6' ESE of the center of M33 and is symmetrically placed on the opposite side of M33 from NGC 595.  IC 136 lies 3.5' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 135 = Big. 126, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan made an error with the "estimated offset from M33's nucleus of his comparison star".  It also appears that his offsets were applied with the wrong signs as the relative positions of these objects are reversed in RA as well as declination!  As a result, the IC positions for IC 135, 136, 139, and 140 are incorrect and out of RA order.  But if the relative differences in RA and NPD are reversed and applied to IC 135 at the position given here, then they land on the correct positions for IC 136, 139 and 140.

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IC 136 = M33-A101 = BCLMP 88

01 34 17 +30 34 00; Tri

Size 0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, fairly large, very low surface brightness patch, ~1.5' diameter, located 3.5' S of IC 135.  Appears roughly circular, though the outline is ill defined.  This object is not as prominent as nearby IC 139/140 (to the west and southwest) and IC 135 to the north.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, ill-defined hazy region in M33 between IC 135 3.5' N and a mag 11.5 star 2.5' SSE (just west of the line connecting these objects).  Appears as a slightly locally brighter region of 30" diameter and not as noticeable as the other IC HII regions - would have passed over if casually sweeping galaxy.  This star association may have a smaller HII component.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 136 = Big. 127, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 137 = M33-A12

01 33 39.1 +30 31 20; Tri

 

18" (12/8/07): very large brightening in the outer spiral arm, ~9' to the SSW of the center of M33, ~2.5'x2.0'.  M33-A14 lies NW.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): very faint HII knot or star association in M33 located along the main southern spiral arm 10' SSW of center of M33.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 137 = Big. 128, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  His micrometric position falls within M33-A12; IC 137 is the southwestern part of the association.

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IC 138 = UGC 1106 = MCG +00-05-003 = CGCG 386-005 = PGC 5771

01 33 02.0 -00 41 23; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 27°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; moderately faint, oval 4:3 ~N-S, ~40"x30", fairly low surface brightness halo.  A faint star (mag 15.5+) is at the E edge.  A mag 10.6 star is 8' SE.

 

Aaron Skinner, an assistant to Truman Safford, discovered IC 138 = Sf. 95 on 27 Sep 1867.  His position is 2' WNW of UGC 1106, the only reasonably bright nearby galaxy that he might have seen.  The discovery list, published 20 years later, was included in an appendix to the NGC and later added to the IC 1.

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IC 139 = M33-A4

01 33 59.2 +30 34 03; Tri

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly small, ~45"x30, extended N-S, moderately bright HII knot/cluster forming a 1' pair with IC 140 to the south.

 

17.5" (7/5/86 and 10/25/97): fairly prominent elongated HII region and star association just following a mag 13 star 5.4' SSE of the center of M33.  Extended ~N-S, perhaps 2.0'x0.5' and consists of two brighter knots at both ends (the size appears too large).  Similar view on 7/5/86.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 139 = Big. 129, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 140 = M33-A5

01 33 58.1 +30 33 02; Tri

 

18" (12/8/07): this moderately bright knot (cluster) in M33 is ~35" in diameter, roundish and located just 1' S of IC 139.

 

17.5" (7/5/86 and 10/25/97): located SSW of IC 139 in M33 and visible as an easy knot, ~1' in diameter with ill-defined edges.  There is a second knot close west which is slightly fainter.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 140 = Big. 130, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 141 = MCG -03-05-004 = PGC 5765

01 32 51.7 -14 48 53; Cet

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; unusual appearance with a very small and bright core that is offset to the west side - the halo is larger and extends further on the east side).  A mag 14.5 star is 2' E and a mag 15.5 star is less than 1' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 141 = J. 1-68 on 5 Dec 1891 and recorded "pretty bright, round, with eccentrically placed core."  His position matches PGC 5765.

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IC 142 = M33-A67 = BCLMP 301

01 33 55.6 +30 45 26; Tri

Size 0.5'

 

24" (12/28/13): B324, a highly luminous hypergiant and the brightest individual star in M33, appeared as a 15th magnitude star at the north edge of IC 142.  At 325x, it was not resolved from the general glow, but appeared as a sharp stellar point just within the glow on the north side.  IC 142 is nearly collinear with a mag 13.5 star 2.1' NW and a mag 11 star 2.9' NW.  Globular Cluster U49 lies 3.3' NW.

 

18" (12/10/07): fairly bright, small, contains a bright core and faint extensions SW-NE, ~25"x13".  Forms the south vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11 stars 3' WNW and 3' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly faint, very small, round.  Stands out nicely 6' N of the center of M33.  Either contains a stellar spot near the center or a faint star is superimposed.  This "stellar spot" is likely B324, the brightest individual star in M33 excluding Luminous Blue Variables.  B324 is an A-type supergiant with a V magnitude of 15.2. IC 142 is the first of three HII regions in the spiral arm containing IC 142, IC 143 and ending with NGC 604.

 

13.1" (8/16/82): faint knot in arm leading to NGC 604.

 

Bindon Blood Stoney or his brother George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistants, discovered NGC 595 on 2 Feb 1851 (or perhaps on the 13 Sep 1850 observation, "full of knots").  An offset was measured from a star superimposed just north of the core of M33.  The nebula was labeled as "2" on the diagram in the 1861 publication.  No coordinates were ever measured at Birr Castle.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan independently discovered IC 139 = B. 131, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Bigourdan was credited with the discovery in the IC as Dreyer had no way of confirmng Stoney's #2 was the same object.

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IC 143 = M33-A75

01 34 11.2 +30 46 38; Tri

 

18" (12/10/07): very faint, small, hazy patch, ~25"x20", situated close west of a mag 13.5 star and 4.5' due west of NGC 604.  Immediately noticed at 225x, though diffuse with an ill-defined outline.  Forms a pair with M33-A71 just 1.5' NW.  A71 appeared very faint, small, low surface brightness patch, ~20" diameter.  It is perhaps slightly fainter than nearby IC 143 (= A75), but with averted vision A71 has a better defined border.  IC 143 is primarily a star cloud (no HII emission), while A71 is an HII region.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): appears as a very faint, hazy patch close WNW of a mag 13.5 star.  This HII region (M31-A75) is located 5' W of NGC 604 and 8' NNE of the center of M33.  M33-A71 is another very faint, 20" knot just 1.3' NW that appeared slightly brighter than IC 143. This is the second of three HII regions along with IC 142 3.5' WSW and NGC 604 5' E in the spiral arm attached at the west side of M33 and winding towards the NE.

 

13.1" (8/16/82): very faint, small knot in arm leading to NGC 604.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 143 = Big. 132, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 145 = MCG +00-05-020 = CGCG 386-022 = PGC 6084

01 38 38.4 +00 44 29; Cet

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 6°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 225x, 260x and 327x; faint, fairly small, round, 0.4' diameter, nearly even surface brightness. A mag 12.5 star is 2' WNW.  Located 14' NW of mag 7.7 HD 10165.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 145 = J. 2-531 on 12 Dec 1893.  His position matches CGCG 386-022.

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IC 146 = NGC 648 = ESO 543-006 = MCG -03-05-011 = PGC 6083

01 38 39.8 -17 49 53; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 114°

 

17.5" (12/4/93): faint, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration.  A bright uneven double star h2067 = 7.6/11.6 at 34" lies 10' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 146 = J. 1-70 on 30 Sep 1892.  His position matches ESO 543-006 = PGC 6083.  This galaxy was probably discovered earlier by Leavenworth at the Leander McCormick Observatory in 1886.  Leavenworth's rough position for J. 1-70 (later IC 146) is 1.6 min of RA east of this galaxy, a typical error.  Because of the poor position, Bigourdan was unable to recover the galaxy and Javelle assume his observation was new.  Herbert Howe reobserved and measured an accurate position for NGC 648 around 1900 (repeated in the IC 2 notes), though neither Howe nor Dreyer noticed the equivalence NGC 648 = IC 146.  ESO states the equivalence NGC 648 = IC 146.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 147 = MCG -03-05-013 = PGC 6164

01 39 59.8 -14 51 46; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 69°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, diffuse, 25" diameter, slightly brighter core.  Situated 12' WNW of orange mag 7.8 HD 10341. The field is lacking in stars, though a mag 14.5 star is 4' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 147 = J. 2-532 on 7 Dec 1893 and recorded "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, without concentration, a very faint star is nearby."  The "faint star" may be LEDA 918901, just off the southwest side, though this galaxy is quite faint.

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IC 148 = UGC 1195 = MCG +02-05-011 = CGCG 437-010 = LGG 029-001 = PGC 6292

01 42 27.0 +13 58 37; Psc

V = 12.9;  Size 3.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 45°

 

17.5" (12/18/89): faint, moderately large, oval SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  Located 22' NNW of NGC 660.  This galaxy is possibly IC 148.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 148 = Sw. 10-6 on 30 Sep 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pS; v diff.; np of [NGC] 660.  There is nothing at his postion -- nearly 10' due west of NGC 660.  However, exactly 20' north is UGC 1195 and Harold Corwin identifies this galaxy as UGC 1195.  This galaxy is "np of 660" as in the description and a 20' digit error in declination accounts for the position.  Still, this identification is not certain and neither the UGC, CGCG, MCG, PGC or HyperLeda identify their entries as IC 148.  NED lists IC 148 as UGC 1195, as well as SIMBAD.

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IC 149 = MCG -03-05-015 = PGC 6289

01 42 25.4 -16 18 01; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 81°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 124x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 40"x20", weak concentration.  Situated just west of the line connecting a mag 11.8 star 1.2' NE and a mag 12.6 star 1.8' SSE.  Located 26' E of mag 8.1 HD 10318 and 32' SW of mag 3.5 Tau Ceti.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 149 = J. 2-533 on 7 Dec 1893 and recorded "faint, elongated E-W, about 40" long, slightly brighter middle."  His position and description matches PGC 6289.  MCG and PGC fail to label their numbers as IC 149.

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IC 150 = UGC 1202 = MCG +01-05-026 = CGCG 412-020 = PGC 6316

01 42 57.5 +04 12 01; Psc

V = 14.8;  Size 0.9x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 143°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 327x; faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 2:1 NW-SE, 0.5'x0.3', low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.4' SW.  IC 150 is located 12' WSW of NGC 664 (similar redshift).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 150 = J. 2-534 on 5 Dec 1893.  His position is 1' SW of UGC 1202, but the identification is secure.

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IC 151 = UGC 1271 = MCG +02-05-040 = CGCG 437-036 = PGC 6657

01 49 00.1 +13 12 40; Ari

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 95°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, very small bright core.  Located 10' NNW of NGC 677 (brighter of a close pair with NGC 675). UGC 1279, located 11' NE, appeared faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~30"x18", low surface brightness.

 

17.5" (12/18/89): fairly faint, very small, round, compact, very small bright core, fairly high surface brightness.  Picked up 10' NNW of NGC 677 near edge of field.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 151= Sw. 10-7, along with IC 152, on 11 Aug 1890 and recorded "eF; pS; np of 2."  There is nothing at his position and Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson originally concluded this number was lost.  The only reasonably bright galaxy near Swift's position is UGC 1200, located ~17' WSW of Swift's position, but there's no evidence this was the intended object.

 

But in 2017, Harold Corwin found that if Swift made a 5 minute error in his RA position, then IC 151 = UGC 1271 and IC 152 = NGC 677.  The declinations match within an arcminute, so these identification appear likely.  Just earlier I had suggested identifications for IC 153 and IC 157, found by Swift in September 1890, based on 4 minutes of time corrections.  So, Corwin looked for a similar correction for these two numbers.

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IC 152 = NGC 677 = UGC 1275 = MCG +02-05-042 = CGCG 437-039 = PGC 6673

01 49 14.0 +13 03 19; Ari

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

See observing notes for NGC 677

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 152 = Sw. 10-8, along with IC 151, on 11 Aug 1890 and recorded "eF, S, R, vF * close, sf of 2 [with IC 151]."  There is no pair of galaxies in the area matching his relative separations.  CGCG identifies CGCG 437-016 = PGC 6368 as IC 152.  This is the closest galaxy (2.7' to the NW) to Swift's position, but may be too faint to be one of Swift's galaxies and furthermore, there is no "vF * close".

 

After I suggested to Harold Corwin the possible identities IC 153 = UGC 1260 and IC 157 = UGC 1274 (with ~4 minute errors in RA), also Swift discoveries, he found that a 5 minute error in the position of IC 152 would match with NGC 677.  The "vF * close" might refer to the 14th magnitude star less than 1' NW of center or even NGC 675.  This identification is not certain, but certainly reasonable particularly given the other matches.

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IC 153 = UGC 1260 = Mrk 575 = CGCG 437-031 = PGC 6633

01 48 33.1 +12 36 50; Ari

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter.  Weak concentration but appears to have a brighter bar through the center oriented SW-NE [later confirmed on the DSS].  A mag 10.8 star is 2.5' NW.  UGC 1274 (likely IC 157) lies 17' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 153 = Sw. 10-9, along with IC 157, on 25 Sep 1890 and reported "eF, pS, R, sp of 2 [with IC 157]."  There is nothing at his position and Corwin concludes this object is nonexistent.  The nearest galaxy he might have picked up is CGCG 437-018 = PGC 6381, located 12' S of his position, but there is nothing at his relative offset to IC 157 (~21' NE).

 

In 2017, I noticed that exactly 4 minutes of RA east of Swift's position is UGC 1260 (dec matches within 1') and 17' NE of this galaxy is UGC 1274.  Is this pair IC 153 and 157?  Swift's descriptions in this case are not very helpful, but regarding IC 157 he states: "D * and wide D p, nf of 2."  Do these comments apply to UGC 1274?  About 8' northwest of UGC 1274 is a 10th magnitude star (SAO 92644) that has a wide companion, and also 8' southwest is a closer and fainter double star.  So, I think these conditions are met and Corwin concurs this identification is likely.

 

Following my suggestion, Corwin found that IC 151 and IC 152, found by Swift on 11 Aug 1890, might have similar RA errors of 5 minutes, matching UGC 1271 and NGC 677.  The declinations match to within 1' and the RA differences match as well.

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IC 154 = UGC 1229 = MCG +02-05-023 = PGC 6439

01 45 16.4 +10 38 57; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 1.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 66°

 

17.5" (12/18/89): very faint, fairly small, appears as a very thin sliver WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.5 star is at the preceding end 40" WSW of center.  Member of the NGC 665 group and forms a pair with IC 156 6' SSE.  NGC 665 lies 14' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 154 = J. 2-535, along with IC 156, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "F, vS, little brighter middle, * 11.5 sp."

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IC 156 = UGC 1231 = MCG +02-05-025 = PGC 6448

01 45 29.3 +10 33 09; Psc

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (12/18/89): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' N.  Located 2.5' W of mag 8.7 SAO 92617.  Member of the NGC 665 group with IC 154 6' NNW and NGC 665 11' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 156 = J. 2-536, along with IC 154, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "pB, R, 30" diameter, much brighter middle to a nucleus = * 12 mag."

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IC 157 = UGC 1274 = MCG +02-05-043 = CGCG 437-038 = PGC 6670

01 49 11.6 +12 51 12; Ari

V = 14.0;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  PA = 108°

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, moderately surface brightness, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~40"x16", small brighter core.  UGC 1260 (likely IC 153) lies 16' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 157 = Sw. 10-10, along with IC 153, on 25 Sep 1890.  There are no nearby galaxies he might have picked up and both Corwin and Thomson concluded these numbers were lost.  Looking at the general region, I noticed that if Swift made a 4 minute error in RA, it's possible that IC 153 = UGC 1260 and IC 157 = UGC 1274, though in the latter case the offset in RA is close to 3.5 minutes in RA.  Corwin agrees this is a reasonable hypothesis, and 5 minutes errors in RA also accounts for IC 151 = UGC 1271 and IC 152 = NGC 677, found by Swift a month earlier.

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IC 158 = LEDA 144318

01 45 53.5 -06 56 08; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 140°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, very small or stellar nucleus.  A mag 15.5 star is less than 1' SSW.  Located 20' SE of mag 6.5 HD 10725 = BU 6 (6.6/8.9 at 2.2").

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 158 = J. 2-537 on 14 Dec 1892.  His position matches LEDA 144318, although HyperLeda doesn't recognize this galaxy as IC 158.

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IC 159 = MCG -02-05-042 = PGC 6505

01 46 25.1 -08 38 12; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  PA = 27°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, relatively large, oval ~3:2 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.6', broad concentration, slightly brighter core.  Within a group of stars including two mag 14 stars 2' and 3' NNW.  A mag 10.7 star is 5' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 159 = J. 2-538 on 17 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 160 = MCG -02-05-044 = PGC 6511

01 46 29.6 -13 14 52; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  PA = 85°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 260x and 327x; relatively bright for an IC discovery by Javelle, well concentrated with a small bright core, elongated E-W, 35"-40" along the major axis.

 

Member of a small group (USGC S065) with MCG -02-05-046 10' SSE. Logged as faint, elongated at least 2:1 SW-NE, uniform brightness, easily visible with averted.  A mag 10.1 star is 3.7' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 160 = J. 1-71 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position is at the southeast edge of PGC 6511.

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IC 161 = VV 54a = UGC 1266 = MCG +02-05-036 = CGCG 437-033 = Mrk 1007 = LGG 031-015 = PGC 6644

01 48 43.7 +10 30 28; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65°

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.4'x0.25', well concentrated with a very bright core than increases to a stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint companion off the SE side (together forming VV 54) was not seen.  Forms a pair with IC 162 = VV 55 = Arp 228 2.5' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 161 = Sw. 9-3 = Sw. 10-11 on 3 Oct 1889 and recorded, "eeF; S; cE, between 2 distant stars in meridian."  He returned to the field on 8 Jan 1891 and recorded IC 161 again (list 10, #11).  It's uncertain whether his first observation in 1889 refers to the southwest (IC 161) or northeast (IC 162) member of this pair.  Furthermore, his reported declination in 1891 is 10' too far south, which was repeated in the IC..

 

UGC, CGCG and MCG all misidentify IC 161 (= UGC 1266) as IC 162 and don't assign an IC designation to IC 162 = UGC 1267.  See Corwin's notes on IC 161 and 162 as well as Malcolm's Thomson's IC Corrections.

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IC 162 = Arp 228 = VV 53a = UGC 1267 = MCG +02-05-038 = CGCG 437-034 = LGG 031-009 = PGC 6643

01 48 53.4 +10 31 17; Psc

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, fairly well concentrated with a small bright core.  The halo increases in size to at least 0.8' with averted vision.  In a small group with MCG +02-05-039 = PGC 6653 just 1.0' SE, IC 161 2.5' WSW and UGC 1268 4.0' N.  PGC 6653 appeared very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12".

 

Arp placed IC 162 in his category of "concentric rings".  V-V classified this galaxy as an interacting pair (VV 53), but the galaxy looks single on the SDSS.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 162 = Sw. 10-12 = Sw. 9-3? in January 1891 or perhaps earlier on 3 Oct 1889 (list 9, #3).  The interpretation depends on which single galaxy he picked up in 1889.  Furthermore, Swift's position for  XI-11 is 10' too far south.  The UGC, CGCG and MCG misidentify IC 161 (southwestern member of the pair) as IC 162.  See Harold Corwin's notes and Malcolm Thompson's IC Corrections.

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IC 163 = UGC 1276 = MCG +03-05-018 = LGG 034-001 = PGC 6675

01 49 15.0 +20 42 40; Ari

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 90°

 

24" (8/29/19): at 375x; fairly faint, oval 2:1 or 5:2 ~E-W, brighter along the major axis like a bar, ~50"x20", bulges slightly at the center.  The "bar" is slightly offset to the east in the halo.  A mag 14.1 star is less than 1' S and another is 2' E.

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; nearly in the moderately bright category, elongated ~5:2 E-W or perhaps ENE-WSW, slightly brighter core region.  Sometimes appeared slightly brighter along the major axis like a bar. Situated just north of the westernmost star in slightly curved trio of similar 14th mag stars.  Member of the NGC 691 Group.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 163 = Sf. 72 = Sw. 9-4 on 27 Dec 1866 and recorded "pB, pS, bM N = 13m."  His position is 1' N of UGC 1276.  The Dearborn observatory discoveries weren't published until 1887.  Lewis Swift discovered the galaxy again on 25 Nov 1889 and reported it as new in his 9th list (#4) with description "eeeF; pL R."  His RA was 12 seconds too large.  Dreyer credited both observers in the IC and used Swift's position, though Safford's was more accurate.

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IC 164 = MCG -01-05-037 = PGC 6666

01 49 08.4 -03 54 16; Cet

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

24" (11/7/18): at 260x; moderately bright, moderately large, round, sharply concentrated a very bright small core and a diffuse halo which fades out without a perceptible edge. The galaxy is nearly collinear with a mag 10 star 3.5' SSW and a mag 12 star 3' NNE.

 

MCG -01-05-036, located 13' N, appeared fairly faint, diffuse, ~0.6' diameter, no significant core.  A mag 13.9 star is at the southeast edge of the halo, with the galaxy spreading northwest of the star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 164 = Sw. 9-5 on 23 Oct 1889 and recorded "pF; S; R; bet. 2 stars, ? cluster of eeF st[ars]."  His position is 3.8' ESE of PGC 6666.  Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1897-98 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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IC 165 = NGC 684 = UGC 1292 = MCG +04-05-017 = CGCG 482-022 = KTG 8C = PGC 6759

01 50 14.0 +27 38 48; Tri

V = 12.4;  Size 3.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 90°

 

See observing notes for NGC 684.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' son, found IC 165 = Sw. 9-6 on 18 Jan 1890 while "searching for Swift's Comet."  It was reported in the 9th discovery list as "eF; S; lE; vF * close f."  The position is 1' S of NGC 684.  In Astronomische Nachrichten #3429, Isaac Roberts noted the equivalence of IC 165 and NGC 684 and Dreyer mentioned the identity in the IC 2 notes.

 

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IC 166 = Tombaugh 3 = OCL-334 = Lund 60

01 52 22 +61 51 18; Cas

V = 11.7;  Size 5'

 

18" (12/22/11): easily picked up at 175x though at this power appeared as a faint, fairly small, roundish glow.  At 285x ~10-12 mag 14-15.5 stars were resolved with a couple at the edge of visibility over a mottled background.  Roughly 3.5' diameter.  A brighter mag 12.5 star is at the west edge.

 

17.5" (8/5/97): position identified at 100x using a GSC chart, although only a couple of stars are plotted.  Appears as a very faint circular glow with a couple of faint stars superimposed.  Located 7' E of a wide pair of mag 9/11 stars [at 38" separation].  Does not resemble a cluster in appearance and would have otherwise thought this was a Milky Way patch. At 220x, the glow is ~4' in diameter and there are a sprinkling of ~10 very faint stars, mostly mag 14.5-15.5 with one mag 13 star.  The glow has an irregular surface brightness with a mottled appearance and the periphery is not well defined.

 

William Denning discovered IC 166 around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer.  The IC position corresponds with the faint open cluster Tombaugh 3.

 

Clyde Tombaugh independently found IC 166 in Jan/Feb of 1941 while surveying the circumpolar region from Lowell Observatory with the 13-inch Lowell telescope.  He tentatively identified "Tombaugh 3" as an open cluster, though thought is might be a loose globular or "even a midget galaxy just beyond the border of our Milky Way System".

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IC 167 = Arp 31 = UGC 1313 = MCG +04-05-021 = CGCG 482-025 = Holm 123 = LGG 034-008 = PGC 6833

01 51 08.6 +21 54 46; Ari

V = 13.1;  Size 2.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 95°

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, elongated 4:3, 0.8'x0.6', low surface brightness.  Located 5.5' SSE of NGC 694 in a NGC 697 group (also called the NGC 691 group) and 3.9' S of a mag 10.5 star.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 167 = Big. 133 on 4 Jan 1889.  He noted a mag 10.5 star was at 4' separation in PA 358° (N).

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IC 168 = MCG -02-05-058 = PGC 6763

01 50 27.6 -08 31 23; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.35';  PA = 104°

 

24" (11/7/18): at 375x; moderately bright, small, high surface brightness!  Elongated 2:1 E-W, 30"x15", very small bright nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star is less than 4' E.  Located 15' WSW of NGC 707.

 

LEDA 1002631, located 3.5' E, appeared extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Situated 40" S of a mag 11.5 star.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham Burnham discovered IC 168 = J. 2-539 on 7 Oct 1891 while observing and measuring NGC 707.  His position (published in 1892) is accurate.  Javelle found this galaxy again on 17 Dec 1892, also while measuring NGC 707.  Jermain Porter also found it independently in 1908 with the 16-inch Clark refractor at the Cincinnati Observatory and reported it as a nova.  A micrometric position was published in a long table of mostly NGC positions.

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IC 169 = LEDA 949241

01 50 39.4 -12 40 47; Cet

Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 70°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 5:4, 25"x20", pretty diffuse with a weak concentration to the center.  Situated 8' E of mag 8.3 HD 11227 and 14' NNE of mag 6.9 HD 11247.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 169 = J. 1-72 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate, although HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 949241 as IC 169.

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IC 170 = MCG -02-05-066 = PGC 6890

01 51 57.5 -08 31 03; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  PA = 92°

 

24" (11/7/18): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, compact, 24", occasional stellar nucleus. Located 7.6' ESE of NGC 707 in a scattered group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 170 = J. 540 on 17 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 171 = UGC 1388 = MCG +06-05-050 = CGCG 522-064 = PGC 7139

01 55 10.3 +35 16 52; Tri

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 105°

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.8', weak central concentration, stellar nucleus.  A mag 10 star is off the NE edge 45" from center.  Almost collinear with a double star mag 12/13 at 18" located 2.5' W.

 

Édouard Stephan discovered discovered IC 171 = Sw. 8-1 on 24 Nov 1875 after viewing NGC 710.  His position was less than 1' from center, so the identification is certain although he never measured a precise position or announced the discovery.  Lewis Swift discovered it again on 6 Sep 1888, though his RA was 10 seconds too large (8th discovery list, #1).  His description reads, "pB; pS; cE; * nr nf."  Swift was credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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IC 172 = Ark 63 = MCG +00-05-049 = CGCG 386-056 = PGC 7116

01 54 54.2 +00 48 40; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 85°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 260x and 327x; fairly faint, irregular round, 25" diameter, very small or stellar nucleus.  Situated directly between a mag 9.5 star (SAO 110222) 1.9' SSW and a mag 13.2 star 2.2' NNE.  Also a mag 11.9 star 4.6' NNE is nearly on the same line.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 172 = J. 2-541 on 12 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 173 = UGC 1402 = MCG +00-06-001 = PGC 7217

01 55 57.1 +01 17 07; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 90°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; between faint and fairly faint (noticeably easier than last month), round, 35"-40" diameter, diffuse, broad and weak concentration.  At the southwestern vertex of a triangle with a mag 11 star 3.6' NNE and a mag 12 star a similar distance E. Fainter IC 175 is 6' NE.

 

24" (11/15/22): at 260x and 327x; very faint, low surface brightness, roundish, ~30" diameter, nearly uniform brightness.  A mag 11 star is 3.6' NNE and a mag 12 star is 3.7' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 173 = J. 2-542 on 26 Dec 1893.  He described it as "faint, round, about 40" in diameter, mottled appearance, faint central condensaation."

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IC 174 = UGC 1409 = MCG +01-06-008 = CGCG 413-004 = PGC 7249

01 56 16.1 +03 45 43; Psc

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 96°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, moderate surface brightness, slightly elongated, ~35"x25".  A mag 15.5 star is just off the NE edge. Brightest in a trio (USGC U086) with IC 1750 19' N and IC 1754 18' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 174 = J. 1-73 on 5 Nov 1891.  His position is within 1' of UGC 1409.

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IC 175 = CGCG 387-003 = PGC 7261

01 56 18.9 +01 19 57; Cet

V = 15.1;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 9°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter. I could nearly hold it steadily with averted in my sweet spot.  Faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.3 star is 2' W.  Located 6' NE of brighter IC 173 (similar redshift) and 4.4' ESE of a mag 11 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 175 = J. 2-543 on 26 Dec 1892

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IC 176 = UGC 1426 = MCG +00-06-004 = CGCG 387-005 = KUG 0154-022 = FGC 216 = RFGC 416 = PGC 7306

01 56 53.4 -02 01 09; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 1.8'x0.35';  PA = 94°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; very faint to faint, very thin edge-on 6:1 or E-W, 60"x10", very slightly brighter core but no central bulge.  Once picked up I could just hold it continuously with careful averted.  Located 17' WNW of mag 6.6 58 Ceti.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 176 = J. 1-74 on 3 Dec 1891 and noted "pretty bright, small".  His position is accurate.

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IC 177 = CGCG 387-007 = PGC 7326

01 57 00.6 -00 05 23; Cet

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20"-25" diameter, low even surface brightness. A mag 13 star is 2' N.  Situated 9' N of mag 8.7 HD 11898.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 177 = J. 1-75 on 7 Nov 1891.  His position is 4' SSE of CGCG 387-007, an unusually large error, caused by an error in the position of his offset star. The MCG misidentified MCG +00-06-003 = PGC 7299 as IC 177.

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IC 178 = UGC 1456 = MCG +06-05-070 = CGCG 522-094 = LGG 037-014 = PGC 7488

01 58 54.8 +36 40 30; And

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170°

 

17.5" (9/1/02): this member of the AGC 262 cluster appeared faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, weak concentration.  Located 4.6' NNE of mag 7.3 HD 12007.  A wide pair of mag 11.5/13 stars is 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, brighter core.  Located 4.7' NNE of mag 7.2 SAO 55161.  Member of AGC 262 with CGCG 522-098 10' NNE.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, slightly brighter core. A wide pair (35" separation) of mag 12 and 13 stars is 1.5' SE of center.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 178 = Sf. 67 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 so Safford is not credited in the NGC.  His position is 4' south of CGCG 501-066 = PGC 3666.

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IC 179 = UGC 1475 = MCG +06-05-075 = CGCG 522-101 = PGC 7581

02 00 11.5 +38 01 17; And

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 110°

 

24" (11/24/14): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, high surface brightness (central region), 25" diameter, weak concentration to the center, possible very low surface brightness halo.

 

UGC 1493 lies 14' NE and appears fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 0.8'x0.3', fades at tips.  Seems to have a sharper light cut off on the north side. A string of four mag 13-14.5 stars is close NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 179 = Sw. 10-13 on 28 Jun 1890 with the 16-inch refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "pB, S, lE, 9m * near nf."  His position is 8 second of time too far west.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate micrometric position around 1900 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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IC 180 = MCG +04-05-029 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7558

02 00 00.4 +23 36 16; Ari

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 150°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; faint, small, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 NW-SE, 25"x10", occasional stellar nucleus.  Close companion of NGC 776, located 2.7' to its SSE.

 

17.5" (12/7/90): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  In a trio with NGC 776 3' NNW and IC 181 3.0' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 180 = J. 2-544, along with IC 181, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892.

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IC 181 = MCG +04-05-030 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7559

02 00 02.3 +23 39 31; Ari

V = 14.9;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 55°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Close companion of NGC 776 2.0' SW.

 

17.5" (12/7/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Faintest of a close trio with NGC 776 2' SW and IC 180 3.0' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 181 = J. 2-545, along with IC 180, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892.  CGCG and the UGC notes to NGC 776 fail to identify this galaxy as IC 181.

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IC 182 = UGC 1473 = MCG +01-06-026 = CGCG 413-022 = PGC 7556

01 59 51.8 +07 24 42; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.65';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 36°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 375x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~35"x25", low nearly even surface brightness.  Surrounded by 3 mag 11-12 stars, all 3'-4' away.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 182 = J. 2-546 on 5 Dec 1893.  His postion is 1' too far S.

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IC 183 = MCG -01-06-015 = LGG 044-004 = PGC 7538

01 59 34.0 -05 20 50; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 97°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 260x; relatively bright, very elongated at least 3:1 SW-NE, brighter along the major axis, 0.9'x0.3'.  A mag 10.2 star is 3.8' E.  A group of stars is directly S and SE including a mag 9.7 star 7' SE.  NGC 790 is 27' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 183 = J. 2-547 on 7 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 184 = MCG -01-06-021 = PGC 7554

01 59 51.2 -06 50 25; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 177°

 

48" (10/24/14): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a bright core and a very bright nucleus.

 

IC 184 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy and the brightest in a small group that includes the three brightest members of HCG 14, located ~13' S.

 

17.5" (12/22/97): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, broad concentration.  Located 2.7' NNW of a mag 10-11 star.  This galaxy was picked up while searching for HCG 14 which is located 14' due south and is brighter than the two primary galaxies in HCG 14.  NGC 788 lies 19' E (also stumbled across in the area).

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 184 = LM(S) 55 on 15 Oct 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  The discovery was listed as #55 in the 1893 catalogue of Southern Nebulae.  Stone noted mag 15.0 and 0.2' diameter. His micrometric position was accurate.

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IC 185 = MCG +00-06-019 = PGC 7576

02 00 06.0 -01 31 42; Cet

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 82°

 

24" (11/15/22): at 327x; very faint, small, elongated E-W, 25"x15", even surface brightness. Collinear with a mag 12.9 star 1.4' SE and a mag 10.4 star 3.2' SE. Double star BAL 9 = 9.8/10.3 at 6" separation is 7' SSE.  IC 186 (resolved double system) is 5' ESE. 

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 185 = J. 2-548, along with nearby IC 186, on 14 Dec 1892.  He called it "extremely faint, very small, poor definition."

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IC 186 = MCG +00-06-020 = MCG +00-06-021 = CGCG 387-023 = PGC 7599 = PGC 7600

02 00 24.5 -01 33 06; Cet

Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

24" (11/15/22): IC 186 is a triple system, with the brightest two resolved by Stephane Javelle, though only assigned a single IC designation.

 

At 327x; I immediately split the main pair at 22" separation oriented WSW-ENE.  The brighter western galaxy was easily seen, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15".  The eastern galaxy was faint, round, 15" diameter. The halos seemed nearly in contact.  A mag 10.4 star is 2' WSW.  IC 185 lies 4.7' WNW. 

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 186 = J. 2-549, along with IC 185, on 14 Dec 1892.  He reported it as "faint, double, appears like two faint stars, 15" apart, surrounded by nebulosity. Nebulous character certain.  Measured at the middle of the pair."  His pair is actually a triple as the eastern galaxy is double (apparently in a common halo), and a fourth galaxy is just south of the triple.

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IC 187 = UGC 1507 = MCG +04-05-037 = CGCG 482-048 = LGG 041-009 = PGC 7683

02 01 30.7 +26 28 51; Tri

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 70°

 

24" (12/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a small, brighter rounder core with fairly low surface brightness extensions that increased in size with averted.  Brighter member of an double system with LEDA 2800932 at the east-northeast edge.  The companion was faint, small and barely detached.  An evenly matched 10" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 6' SSW.  NED does not include redshift data on the companion, so this may be either be a merging or overlapping pair.

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Broad concentration with a brighter and rounder 15" core.  Forms a double system with LEDA 2800932.  The fainter companion was at or just off the east end and appeared as very faint, small, roundish glow that was sometimes detached, depending on if the halo (arms) of IC 187 was visible or not.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 187 = Sw. 9-7, along with IC 188, on 18 Jan 1890 while searching for "Swift's Comet".  The RA is 21 seconds of time too large, but matches in declination.  The UGC, MCG and UGC failed to identify their catalog entries as IC 187.

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IC 188 = UGC 1510 = MCG +04-05-038 = CGCG 482-049 = LGG 041-010 = PGC 7706

02 01 46.5 +26 32 49; Tri

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 45°

 

24" (12/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 24"x12", nearly even surface brightness.  Located 5' NE of the double system IC 187.

 

18" (12/22/11): faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 20"x15", weak concentration to center but no nucleus.  Located 5' NE of IC 187.  The identification of IC 188 with this galaxy (suggested by Corwin) is uncertain.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 188 = Sw. 9-8, along with IC 187, on 18 Jan 1890, while searching for "Swift's Comet".  Described as "eeef, vS; R; 2 stars point to it."  There is nothing at his position, but 10 sec of RA west and 30' south is UGC 1510, and there is a pair of 12th magnitude stars to the north-northwest that could fit Swift's description. 

 

But due to the large error in declination Malcolm Thomson rejects UGC 1510 as IC 188.  He argues that no similar error occurred with nearby IC 187, and if he discovered UGC 1510, the description would have mentioned "sp of 2" and "nf of 2." for the pair.  Courtney Seligman agrees with Thomson that the evidence is too slim to accept UGC 1510 as IC 188 and he lists the number as probably nonexistent.  No modern catalogue identifies UGC 1510 as IC 188.   See Harold Corwin's IC identification notes as well as Courtney Seligman's summary.

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IC 189 = MCG +04-05-039 = CGCG 482-051 = PGC 7716

02 01 52.9 +23 33 05; Ari

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, low even surface brightness. A small group of 4 stars mag 13.5-14 forming a "Y" asterism is close west.  Pair with IC 190 3.3' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 189 = J. 2-550, along with IC 190, on 15 Dec 1892.  His position matches CGCG 482-051 (both positions are offset about 30" ESE).  The MCG failed to label +04-05-039 as IC 189.

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IC 190 = MCG +04-05-040 = CGCG 482-052 = PGC 7731

02 02 07.3 +23 32 59; Ari

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 95°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 25"x20", contains a very small brighter core. Forms a pair with slightly fainter IC 189 3.3' W.  UGC 1524, situated 8' NE, appeared faint, fairly small, elongated ~4:3 N-S, 20"x15", low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 190 = J. 2-551, along with IC 190, on 15 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 191 = NGC 794 = UGC 1528 = MCG +03-06-024 = CGCG 461-031 = PGC 7763

02 02 29.3 +18 22 23; Ari

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 45°

 

See observing notes for NGC 794.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 191 = Sw. 9-9 on 20 Oct 1889 and reported "pB; pL; lE."  His position is at the west edge of NGC 794.  Dreyer perhaps assumed it was new due to Swift's description, which differed significantly from WH's "eF, vS, stellar,240 showed it very plainly." Dreyer added the parenthetical comment "probably = [NGC 794]" in the IC description and certainly NGC 794 = IC 191.

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IC 192 = UGC 1530 = MCG +03-06-025 = PGC 7768

02 02 32.4 +16 00 51; Ari

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 148°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 322x; fairly faint, slightly elongated, 35" diameter, gradually increases to a nearly stellar peak.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 192 on 14 Feb 1890 with the 27" refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  It was found while searching for Comet 1889 V (Brooks).  His micrometric position is an exact match with UGC 1530.

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IC 193 = UGC 1529 = MCG +02-06-016 = CGCG 438-017 = PGC 7765

02 02 31.0 +11 05 35; Ari

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  PA = 158°

 

24" (12/12/17): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 55"x45", broad weak concentration, no distinct core.  Located 8' NW of mag 6.5 HD 12512.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 193 = Sw. 7-3 on 8 Oct 1887 and recorded "eF; pS; lE or irr R; B* sf; pF * nr f."  His position is ~3' too far ESE, but this is the only nearby galaxy and it clearly matches his description.

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IC 194 = UGC 1542 = MCG +00-06-026 = CGCG 387-030 = PGC 7812

02 03 05.2 +02 36 51; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 1.6'x0.25';  PA = 13°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 260x; fairly faint, thin edge-on 6:1 or even 8:1 ~N-S, ~60"x10", slightly brighter core, the outer ends taper slightly.  Located 9' S of mag 8.1 HD 12537 and 18' SE of mag 4.1 Alpha Psc.  IC 197 lies 18' NE.

 

24" (12/28/16): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, thin edge-on 5:1 N-S, ~0.9'x0.2', very small brighter nucleus. A mag 10.6 star is 3.8' E. Located 18' SE of mag 4.1 Alpha Psc (Alrescha).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 194 = J. 2-552 on 6 Jan 1894.  He noted "very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no concentration.  Difficult because of a vicinity of the comparison star."

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IC 195 = Arp 290 NED1 = VV 309b = UGC 1555 = MCG +02-06-017 = CGCG 438-019 = PGC 7846

02 03 44.6 +14 42 33; Ari

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 126°

 

48" (10/29/16): at 488x and 610x; fairly bright, moderately large, sharply concentrated with a bright, elongated 2:1 core NNW-SSE and highlighted by a stellar nucleus.  The halo or spiral arms are very low surface brightness and extend 5:2 NW-SE, ~1.0'x0.4'.  A distracting 15" pair of mag 10.4/12.7 stars is 2.3' W.  Forms an interacting pair (Arp 290) with IC 196 2.2' NE.

 

17.5" (11/17/01): faint, small, bright core, faint extensions NW-SE, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 12 star lies 1.4' S.  Forms a close pair (Arp 290) with brighter IC 196 2.2' NE.  Preceding by just 2.2' is a nice mag 10.5/12.5 pair at 15" with two additional mag 12 stars to the SSW of the closer pair.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 195 = Sw. 9-10, along with IC 196, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "eeF; S; R; F * nr south; sp of 2 [with IC 196]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1555.

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IC 196 = Arp 290 NED2 = VV 309a = UGC 1556 = MCG +02-06-018 = CGCG 438-020 = PGC 7856

02 03 49.8 +14 44 21; Ari

V = 12.9;  Size 2.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 5°

 

48" (10/29/16): at 488x and 610x; bright, large, very elongated but irregular 5:1 ~N-S, ~2.0'x0.4', well concentrated with a small, round bright core.  A fairly thin long arm or tail extends due south from the core and then curls southwest towards IC 195.  It appears to spread out and dim on the southwest end [0.9' from center].   A shorter arm extends north from the core ~30" and dims abruptly.  But a very low surface brightness, elongated N-S patch is detached on the northern end (part of an outer tidal tail or loop) ~1' from the center.  A companion (LEDA 212903) is just northeast of this patch, 1.3' NNE of center.  It appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 15"x9".

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, nearly edge-on 4:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.3'.  Contains a rounder, bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with IC 195 2.2' SW.  This galaxy is actually an interacting quartet, although only the main galaxy was observed along with IC 195.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 196 = Sw. 9-11, along with IC 195, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "pF; pS; R; trap with 3 st; nf of 2 [with IC 195]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1556, though Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1898.

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IC 197 = UGC 1529 = MCG +02-06-016 = CGCG 387-031 = PGC 7875

02 04 04.9 +02 47 12; Psc

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 54°

 

24" (11/30/21): at 260x and 325x; moderately bright, oval ~5:3 SW-NE, ~45" in length, small brighter core/nucleus.  The halo has a slightly irregular surface brightness (spiral).  IC 194 lies 18' SW.  Located 30' E of 4th mag Alpha Psc (Alrescha).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 197 = J. 2-553 on 6 Jan 1894 and recorded "pretty bright, slightly elongated in PA 225° [SW-NE], gradually condensed.".  His position was 1' too far north and the description applies.  Just 19 days later, Rich Tucker at Lick Observatory made an independent discovery while charting faint stars with the 36-inch refractor.  He noted it appeared "somewhat elongated, with but little condensation." His somewhat rough position was 3' too far southeast.  Tucker announced it as a new nebula in PASP, 6, 66 (1894).

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IC 198 = UGC 1592 = MCG +01-06-040 = CGCG 413-040 = PGC 8011

02 06 03.1 +09 17 44; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 53°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 30"x22", very weak concentration.  First of 3 IC galaxies (HDCE 117) with IC 199 5.8' SE and IC 202 22.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 198 = J. 2-554, along with IC 199, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "pretty bright, small, round, 30" diameter, brighter center."

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IC 199 = IC 1778 = UGC 1594 = MCG +01-06-041 = CGCG 413-041 = PGC 8026

02 06 19.4 +09 13 39; Psc

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 24°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, 40"x27", slightly brighter core.  Second in trio (HDCE 117) with IC 198 5.8' NW and IC 202 17.5' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 199 = J. 2-555, along with IC 198, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "faint, small, round, bright core."  He recorded the same galaxy a second time on 29 Jan 1897 as J. 3-192 with the desciption "faint, round, 30", gradually brighter middle, similar to a 14th mag star."  He actually made a comment that it was found while measuring IC 198, though apparently he didn't realize he had already placed it in his second discovery list along with IC 198.  So, IC 199 = IC 1778.

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IC 200 = UGC 1577 = MCG +05-06-002 = CGCG 503-085 = CGCG 504-007 = LGG 042-008 = PGC 7967

02 05 26.8 +31 10 30; Tri

V = 12.9;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 85°

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 0.8' diameter, broad concentration with a small brighter core.  Forms the northeast vertex of a right triangle with mag 8.8 SAO 55246 7' W and mag 8.7 SAO 55245 10' SW.  Several additional 11th and 12th magnitude stars are scattered around SAO 55246.  Member of the NGC 777 Group (LGG 042).  CGCG 504-012 (often identified as IC 200) lies 18' E.  It was logged as faint, small, round, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, about 1.5' diameter.  Low but uneven surface brightness, weak concentration with one or two brighter spots near the center.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the west edge 1.1' from the center.  Located 27' NE of NGC 804.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 200 = Sf. 71 = UGC 1577 on 4 Dec 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  He noted it as "pB, pL, R, bM."  There is nothing at his position but two minutes west is UGC 1577, which fits his description.  CGCG and PGC identify CGCG 504-012 = PGC 8064 as IC 200.  This galaxy is closer Safford's position -- off by 34 seconds of RA, but is less likely to be Safford's object.  Harold Corwin notes "[CGCG 504-012] is probably too faint to have been seen by Safford, and the description does not match in any case."  Édouard Stephan also found IC 200 on 3 Nov 1877 but he didn't publish the discovery (or mark it as new in his notebook), so perhaps he was aware of Safford's discovery.  Stephan's rough position was less than 3' due east.

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IC 202 = UGC 1610 = MCG +01-06-043 = PGC 8101

02 07 28.7 +09 10 06; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 1.4'x0.25';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 132°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; faint, small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 25"x10", slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14.7 star is just beyond the southeast end, 0.9' from center.  A mag 10.4 star is 4' SSE and two mag 10.5 stars are a similar distance NNE.  IC 202 is the third in a trio (HDCE 117) with IC 199 17.5' WNW and IC 198 22.5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 202 = J. 2-557, along with IC 201 and IC 203, on 5 Dec 1893 and recorded "very faint, very small, diffuse, without condensation."

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IC 204 = CGCG 387-039 = PGC 8100

02 07 27.1 -01 25 48; Cet

V = 14.9;  Size 0.55'x0.35';  PA = 154°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~18"x12", irregular surface brightness. A distinctive rough parallelogram of mag 12-13 stars (sides 2.5' to 3.5' in length) is close NE.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 204 = Sf. 98 on 22 Oct 1867.  His position is 2.4' NNW of CGCG 387-039, but there are no other nearby galaxies and his positions are often rough.  So, this identification is nearly certain.

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IC 205 = UGC 1613 = MCG +00-06-034 = CGCG 387-038 = PGC 8098

02 07 27.4 -02 05 29; Cet

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, irregular round, 30" diameter, soft glow like a face-on spiral, slightly uneven surface brightness but no core.  A mag 11.6 star is 2.6' ENE and a close double star (RST 4193 = 10.2/10.7 at 3") is 4' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 205 = J. 1-76 on 3 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 206 = MCG -01-06-053 = Holm 57a = PGC 8238

02 09 30.7 -06 58 06; Tri

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 138°

 

18" (11/22/03): second of trio with IC 209 10' SW and IC 207 3.6' NE.  Appears very similar to IC 207: very faint, small, round, 25" diameter (elongated 5:2 on DSS image so probably viewed core only), weak concentration.  The IC positions are incorrect due to a mix-up by Javelle with his offset star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 206 = J. 1-77, along with IC 207, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) matches this identification.  Listed in the MCG as -01-06-053, though without the IC designation.

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IC 207 = MCG -01-06-054 = Holm 57b = PGC 8251

02 09 39.3 -06 55 20; Tri

V = 13.9;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 99°

 

18" (11/22/03): third of 3 with IC 206 3.6' SW and IC 209 13' SW.  IC 206 and IC 207 for an equilateral triangle with a mag 11.4 star 3.4' WNW.  Although this galaxy is quite elongated I must have just recorded the brighter core as appeared very faint, small, round, 25", weak concentration.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 207 = J. 1-78, along with IC 206, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) lands on this galaxy.  Listed in the MCG as -01-06-054, though without the IC designation.

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IC 208 = UGC 1635 = MCG +01-06-044 = CGCG 413-045 = LGG 047-002 = PGC 8167

02 08 27.7 +06 23 42; Cet

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

24" (1/25/14): fairly faint, fairly large, round, 1.5' diameter, very low though irregular surface brightness, no core or nucleus.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 825.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 208 = Big. 134 on 3 Dec 1888 and recorded "mag 13.4-13.5; very diffuse; 1.0'-1.5' dia; no nucleus."  His position is 1.5' too far south but the description is accurate.

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IC 209 = MCG -01-06-051 = Holm 56a = PGC 8200

02 08 58.7 -07 03 32; Tri

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60°

 

18" (11/22/03): brightest in trio with IC 206 10' NE and IC 207 13' NE.  Appears moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.2'x1.0', weak concentration, irregular surface brightness.  Surprisingly easy for an IC galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 209 = J. 1-79 on 28 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 210 = MCG -02-06-032 = PGC 8232

02 09 28.3 -09 40 49; Cet

V = 13.1;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 66°

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 6:1 WSW-ENE, 1.8'x0.3', very low even surface brightness.  Located 3.4' SW of a mag 9.3 star (SAO 129724).  MCG -02-06-035 lies 11' E.  Located 27' due north of NGC 835 (HCG 16).

 

Aaron Skinner, an assistant to Truman Safford, discovered IC 210 = Sf. 101 on 23 Oct 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  As the discovery list wasn't published until 1887 (too late for inclusion in the main NGC table), Dreyer credited Safford with the discovery in the IC 1.  The discovery position is just off the north edge of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.

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IC 211 = UGC 1678 = MCG +01-06-053 = CGCG 413-057 = PGC 8360

02 11 08.0 +03 51 09; Cet

V = 13.4;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 50°

 

24" (1/25/14): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, low surface brightness and difficult to estimate diameter, increases in size with averted but at least 1.0'x0.8', slightly brighter core.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 851.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 211 = J. II-559 on 5 Dec 1893 and recorded "F, R, 40" dia, vS core."  His position is accurate.

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IC 212 = CGCG 461-062 = PGC 8527

02 13 38.2 +16 35 38; Ari

V = 15.1;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 84°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; faint, small, round, 0.3' diameter, even surface brightness. A mag 15/15.5 pair at ~10" separation is 40" SE.  IC 212 is the fainter of a pair with IC 213 10' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 212 = J. 2-560, along with IC 213, on 29 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 213 = UGC 1719 = MCG +03-06-046 = CGCG 461-067 = PGC 8556

02 14 04.3 +16 27 21; Ari

V = 13.8;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 149°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, roundish, diffuse, halo, ~0.9' diameter, well concentrated with a small, strong core/nucleus.  A mag 14.5-15 star is at the SE edge.  IC 212 lies 10' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 213 = J. 2-561, along with IC 212, on 19 Dec 1893.  His position matches UGC 1719.

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IC 214 = UGC 1720 = CGCG 413-064 = MCG +01-06-057 = Mrk 1027 = KUG 0211+049 = PGC 1279308 = PGC 8562

02 14 05.6 +05 10 24; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (9/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small.  The main body is elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~25"x15".  With averted vision, a very low surface brightness, diffuse extension spreads to the north of the main body.  With careful viewing this extension appeared attached to the east end of the main body.  Located 13' NE of mag 6.5 HD 13683.  IC 214 is apparently the disrupted collision or merger of two galaxies with the "main body" catalogued as IC 214 NED1 and the extension to the north is IC 214 NED2 = LEDA 1279289.

 

Forms a pair with LEDA 212941 2.5' WSW.  The companion (B = 16.5, 0.6'x0.25') appeared extremely faint, very small, ~15"x10", low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 214 = J. 2-562 on 29 Dec 1893.  He reported "Pretty bright , diffuse, little extended , gradually condensed; seems mottled".  His position is accurate.

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IC 215 = MCG -01-06-076 = PGC 8566

02 14 09.5 -06 48 22; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  PA = 78°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; between fairly faint and moderately bright, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 45"x15", nearly even surface brightness.  Located 1.6' N of a mag 9.7 star.  A mag 14 star is 2.7' E, with the galaxy making a right angle with the two stars.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 215 = J. 1-80 on 28 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 216 = CGCG 387-061 = PGC 8650

02 15 55.5 -02 00 54; Cet

V = 15.3;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 25°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15"-20", very low even surface brightness.  Only occasionally pops, though viewed well west of the meridian.  A thin triangle of mag 13.5-14.5 stars is a couple of arcminutes to the west.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 216 = J. 1-81 on 4 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.  CGCG didn't recognize its 387-061 as IC 216, and this was carried over to the PGC and HyperLeda.  SIMBAD and NED have the correct identification, although the SIMBAD position is poor.

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IC 217 = IC 1787 = MCG -02-06-046 = 2MFGC 1761 = PGC 8673

02 16 10.4 -11 55 36; Cet

V = 13.6;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, ~1.4'x0.25'.  Fairly low surface brightness but surface seems distinctly irregular or mottled at 375x with some slightly brighter sections [PANSTARRS image shows the galaxy is crossed by multiple dust lanes]. A star is very close to the south end, which somewhat confuses the view (galaxy seems bent).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 217 = J. 2-563 on 7 Dec 1893.  He described it as "faint, a little elongated nearly in the meridian (N-S), spindle 1' x 20", without condensation."

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 12 Oct 1896 and assumed it was new.  He described Sw. 11-37 (later IC 1787) as "eeF; eeE; a ray bet 2 st p[receding] and f[ollowing]; 8m star near [north-following]."  His position is 1.5' too far south, but a perfect match in description.  Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence, but IC 1787 = IC 217.

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IC 218 = MCG +00-06-061 = CGCG 387-066 = PGC 8716

02 17 07.2 +01 16 56; Cet

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.25';  PA = 75°

 

24" (1/25/14): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 25"x8", low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is close off the ENE edge [35" ENE of center].  Located 2.4' NNE of NGC 875.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 218 = J. 2-564 on 26 Dec 1893 and recorded "vF, poorly defined, slightly elongated, close to a *13.5."  His position and description is accurate.

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IC 219 = MCG -01-06-088 = PGC 8813

02 18 38.8 -06 54 12; Cet

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  PA = 18°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, roundish, 30" diameter, high surface brightness, very small bright core increases to the center.  Situated 9' SW of NGC 883 and 8' WSW of a wide double star (HJ 327 = 9.2/12.2 at 25").

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 219 = LM(S) 67 = J. 1-67 on 17 Nov 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory. It was published in 1893 ("Southern Observations", Nova #67) and his micrometric position matches PGC 8813.  Stephane Javelle found it again on 26 Jan 1892 at the Nice Observatory and included it in his first catalog of nebulae.

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IC 220 = MCG -02-06-057 = PGC 8847

02 19 11.7 -12 46 54; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.35';  PA = 36°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 SSW-NNE, ~35" in length, fairly low nearly even surface brightness.  Situated 7' WSW of mag 8.9 HD 14448.  Three collinear mag 12-13 stars in a 3' string start 4' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 220 = J. 1-83 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 221 = UGC 1835 = MCG +05-06-034 = PGC 9035

02 22 40.9 +28 15 25; Tri

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 16°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, 1' diameter, elongated 4:3 or 3:2 with averted vision ~N-S, diffuse (spiral) appearance, the halo has a subtle irregular surface brightness.  Located 11' NW of mag 8.4 HD 14737.  Several stars near including a mag 15 star off the SW side.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 221 = Spitaler 1 on 24 Dec 1891.  His micrometric position is on the northwest side of the galaxy.

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IC 222 = CGCG 439-003 = MCG +02-07-004 = PGC 9036

02 22 47.9 +11 38 18; Ari

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 24°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairy faint, round, only a broad weak concentration, no core or nucleus, 30" diameter.  A mag 8.9 star star (HD 14726) is 3.9' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 222 = J. 2-565 on 11 Jan 1894.  His position matches CGCG 439-003.

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IC 223 = ESO 545-008 = MCG -04-06-031 = KTS 16B = LGG 056-004 = PGC 8998

02 22 01.1 -20 44 45; Cet

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152°

 

24" (10/3/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration, 30"x20".  Forms the vertex of a triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Second in a trio (KTS 16) with brighter NGC 899 5' SSW and NGC 907 14' ENE.

 

17.5" (12/4/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration.  Forms an isosceles triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Forms a pair with NGC 899 5' SSW. NGC 907 lies 14' ENE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 223 = LM(S) 71 = Big. 135 on 19 Nov 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick observatory. It was recorded as #71 in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" with the description "irregularly round, suddenly brighter in the middle, stell nucleus?"  Bigourdan independently discovered this galaxy on 1 Dec 1888.  The IC position is accurate.

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IC 224 = MCG -02-07-005 = PGC 9148

02 24 45.1 -12 33 52; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 131°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-SE, 30" diameter, fairly low nearly even surface brightness.  Located 24' SW of mag 4.9 Rho (72) Ceti.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 224 = J. 1-84 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position matches PGC 9148.

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IC 225 = UGC 1907 = MCG +00-07-013 = CGCG 388-016 = Mrk 1038 = PGC 9283

02 26 28.3 +01 09 38; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, small, roundish, 25" diameter, no core but a very small brighter nucleus.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 225 = J. 2-566 on 29 Dec 1893.  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 867 (discovered by William Herschel) may be equal to IC 225.  See his notes for NGC 867.

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IC 226 = UGC 1922 = MCG +05-06-046 = PGC 9373

02 27 45.9 +28 12 32; Tri

V = 14.2;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 15.0

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, very sharply concentrated with a small, round bright core embedded in a very low surface halo perhaps 0.6' diameter (no distinct edge).  Two mag 14/15 stars (15" separation) are just off the northwest side.  A mag 9.6 star is 1.8' NNW and mag 8.6 HD 15271 is 6.2' WNW.  The two stars are collinear with the galaxy.  IC 226 forms a 4.4' pair with IC 227 to the southeast.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 226 = Spitaler 2, along with IC 227, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summarized in the IC) reads "pF, S, R, bM, 2 faint st n[orth]."

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IC 227 = UGC 1932 = MCG +05-06-048 = CGCG 504-087 = PGC 9383

02 28 03.6 +28 10 31; Tri

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 70°

 

24" (2/7/16): at 200x; slightly brighter and larger of a pair with IC 226 4.4' NW.  Appears fairly faint or moderately bright (the listed mag may be too faint), fairly large, slightly elongated, ~1.0'x0.8', the diffuse halo fades out gradually so the size is difficult to estimate.  Sharply concentrated with a well defined, relatively large core that gradually increases to the center.  Mag 8.6 HD 15271 lies 4.6' NNE.  I also picked up LEDA 213001 11.5' ESE, but missed nearby UGC 1958, an extremely low surface brightness edge-on.  LEDA 213001 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 227 = Spitaler 3, along with IC 226, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summarized in the IC) reads "F, pS, R, little brighter in the middle."

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IC 228 = NGC 944 = MCG -03-07-016 = PGC 9300

02 26 41.6 -14 30 57; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 15°

 

See observing notes for NGC 944.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 228 = J. 1-85 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position corresponds with PGC 9300.  This galaxy was discovered earlier by Leavenworth on 1 Jan 1886, but his rough position for LM 1-55 (later NGC 944) was 1.5 minutes too far east so Javelle thought it was a new object.  Corwin verified that Leavenworth's discovery sketch matches PGC 9300.  So, IC 228 = NGC 944.

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IC 230 = MCG -02-07-016 = PGC 9436

02 28 47.3 -10 49 53; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 87°

 

24" (12/22/14): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Easily seen despite a mag 15.7B.  Located 5.5' due west of the double system NGC 942/943.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 230 on 8 Oct 1891 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while observing the double system NGC 942 and 943.

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IC 231 = UGC 1978 = MCG +00-07-025 = CGCG 388-026 = PGC 9514

02 29 56.4 +01 10 45; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  PA = 162°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 225x; fairly faint, very small, round, 18".  I missed the low surface brightness halo and only picked up the much brighter core region.  Situated just 1.7' NW of a relatively bright mag 10 star.  In a group with IC 232 19' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 231 = J. 2-567 on 29 Dec 1893.  His position is 1' NNW of UGC 1978 and the identification is certain.

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IC 232 = UGC 1994 = MCG +00-07-028 = CGCG 388-030 = WBL 074-001 = PGC 9588

02 31 11.6 +01 15 56; Cet

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  PA = 155°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 225x; fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 0.5'x0.4'.  This is the high surface brightness core region of the galaxy and it increased to a sharp stellar nucleus!  I suspected a very low surface brightness halo, but found it difficult to confirm.  BAL 956, a 3.1" equal pair of 12th magnitude stars, lies 3.5' ESE. Brightest in a group (WBL 074) that includes IC 231 19' WSW, UGC 1995 6' NE and UGC 2005 11.5' ESE.

 

UGC 1995 was fairly faint, fairly small, oval ~2:1 WSW-ENE, ~40"x20", slightly brighter along the major axis but no defined core region. A mag 10.7 star is 3.7' SE.

UGC 2005 appeared fairly faint, round, 0.6' diameter.  Contains a very small bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.3 star is off the east side [1.2' from center].  CGCG 388-39, just 2.3' NW, appeared fairly faint, very small, round, 18" diameter, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.  MCG +00-07-034, 2.5' SW of UGC 2005, appeared faint, small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 232 = Sw. 7-4 on 15 Oct 1887 and reported "vF, S, R."  His position is 1.7' due W of UGC 1994.  Dreyer questioned if IC 232 was a duplicate of IC 231, but these are separate galaxies.

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IC 233 = CGCG 388-033 = WBL 075-002 = PGC 9610

02 31 40.7 +02 48 36; Cet

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 100°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2, 0.3'x0.2'.  Brighter of a pair with much fainter CGCG 388-036 0.7' SSE.  Located 4' N of mag 8.8 HD 15719.

 

CGCG 388-036, just 40" S, appeared extremely faint and small, requires averted vision to occasionally glimpse.  A mag 15 star is 20" SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 233 = J. 2-568 on 6 Jan 1894 and recorded "pretty faint, round, 20" diameter, slight condensation.  A faint star is 1' due south."  His position and description matches CGCG 388-033.  HyperLeda and SIMBAD misidentify a fainter galaxy 45" SSE (and closer to the star) as IC 233.

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IC 234 = CGCG 388-034 = Mrk 1045 = PGC 9613

02 31 37.7 -00 08 25; Cet

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 158°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; between faint and fairly faint, diffuse glow, fairly small, 30"x20" N-S, little or no concentration.  A very distinctive loop of 8 or so stars mag 9 and fainter is roughly 25' NW.  Located 27' SE of mag 6.0 HD 15633. IC 236 is 20' E. 

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 234 = J. 1-86 on 9 Nov 1891.  His position is within 1' of CGCG 388-034, the only nearby galaxy.

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IC 235 = UGC 2016 = CGCG 462-022 = Mrk 368 = PGC 9698

02 32 50.8 +20 38 28; Ari

V = 14.4;  Size 0.65'x0.5'

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 25" diameter, low surface brightness, only a slightly central brightening.  A distinctive E-W string (length 4'), consisting of two 11th mag stars and two 12th mag stars, lies 6' S.

 

UGC 2031, situated 23' SSE, appeared faint, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, ~50" major axis, low surface brightness. The two galaxies have a similar redshift (distance ~400 million l.y.).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 235 = J. 2-569 on 15 Dec 1892.  His position is within 30" of UGC 2016 and the identification is certain.

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IC 236 = LEDA 1151183

02 32 55.8 -00 07 52; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 22°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; between very faint and faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Forms the south vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 14 stars 4' NNW and 4' NE.  IC 234 lies 20' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 236 = J. 1-87 on 9 Nov 1891.  His position is just west of LEDA 1151183, although HyperLeda doesn't identify this galaxy as IC 236.

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IC 237 = MCG +00-07-042 = CGCG 388-050 = PGC 9742

02 33 31.6 +01 08 21; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.4' diameter, no core but contains a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.4' WSW. Located 14' NE of mag 7.2 HD 15821.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 237 = J. 2-570 on 29 Dec 1893 and noted "faint, small, round, 30", without condensation.  Follows a mag 9.5 star.

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IC 238 = UGC 2070 = MCG +02-07-016 = CGCG 439-018 = PGC 9835

02 35 22.7 +12 50 16; Ari

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 35°

 

24" (11/7/18): at 260x; fairly faint, oval halo 2:1 SW-NE, ~0.9"x45", well concentrated with a bright, round core.  A mag 13 star is 2' SE and a mag 12 star is 3' N.  Located 29' NW of mag 5.7 31 Aries (HD 16234).

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 238 = Sw. 7-5 on 12 Oct 1887 and noted "vF; vS; R; mbM."  His position is 2' W of UGC 2070 and there are no other nearby galaxies, so the identification is certain.

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IC 239 = UGC 2080 = MCG +06-06-065 = CGCG 523-071 = LGG 070-002 = PGC 9899

02 36 27.9 +38 58 08; And

V = 11.1;  Size 4.6'x4.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 3°

 

18" (11/26/03): at 115x appears as a large, round, low surface brightness glow, ~3.5' with a broad, weak concentration to a slightly brighter 30" core.  With extended viewing the surface brightness is somewhat irregular with a hint of structure.  IC 239 is located just north of a mag 8.6 (2.2' from center) that somewhat hinders viewing.  A distinctive curved string of mag 10-11 stars close west cradles the galaxy.  Member of the NGC 1023 group.

 

17.5" (8/6/02): at 274x appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~3' diameter.  The galaxy exhibited only a broad, weak concentration with no defined core.  The halo faded at the edge and was ill defined.  Situated between mag 8.6 SAO 55698 just off the south end 2.2' from center and a mag 9.6 star 3.3' N within a distinctive asterism of 5 brighter stars.  Located ~45 due west of NGC 1023.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 239 in 1893 and it was announced in MNRAS 54, 371 (1894), "Photograph of a 'New' Spiral Nebula in Perseus."  He noted "the convolutions of the spiral is very faint, but clearly visible on the negative, and involved in them are four 14-15 mag stars and 6 or 7 stars, or star-like condensations, less bright than 16th mag.  The convolutions are symmetrical, and proceed from a very faint star-like nucleus."

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IC 241 = UGC 2115 = MCG +00-07-058 = CGCG 388-071 = PGC 9969

02 37 54.5 +02 19 40; Cet

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 150°

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly faint, small, low surface brightness halo surrounding a very small brighter core.  Located 8' N of a mag 9.5 star and 14' NW of NGC 1016 in a cluster.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, fairly faint stellar nucleus.  Located 12' SE of mag 7.2 HD 16314 in the NW corner of the NGC 1016 cluster.  A fainter galaxy, NGC 1009, lies 6' ESE. 

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 6.2' W of NGC 1009 in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 241 = Big. 137 on 19 Nov 1886 and recorded "mag 13.3; round, 35"-40" diameter, stellar nucleus."  His position matches UGC 2115.

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IC 243 = MCG -01-07-026 = PGC 10009

02 38 32.2 -06 54 08; Cet

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  PA = 35°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, weak concentration, 30" diameter. A mag 11.7 star is 1.4' NNW and a mag 14 star is 1.3' WNW.  Located 13' S of NGC 1022.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 243 = J. 1-89, along with IC 242 (a nearby faint double), on 26 Jan 1892.  PGC incorrectly equates IC 242 and IC 243.  The former number appies to a doube star. Courtney Seligman suggests that NGC 1037 (discovered by Swift) might a duplicate observation of IC 243, if Swift made a 5 degree error in recording or transcribing the declination.

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IC 244 = MCG +00-07-074 = CGCG 388-088 = KUG 0236+025 = PGC 10061

02 39 24.7 +02 43 44; Cet

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, low surface brightness.  Initially difficult to glimpse but once identified could mostly hold with averted.  A mag 10 star is 4' NNW.  Member of the NGC 1016 group (USGC U137)

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 244 = J. 2-571 on 11 Jan 1894.  His position is 1.2' too far SSE (perhaps an error in the position of his offset star).

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IC 245 = MCG -03-07-046 = PGC 10032

02 38 54.6 -14 18 20; Cet

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.25';  PA = 25°

 

24" (1/1/22): at 375x; between faint and fairly faint, very elongated at least 5:2 SSW-NNE, ~40"x16", fairly low even surface brightness.  Situated between mag 8.0 HD 16609 7' ENE and a mag 9.5 star 5' W.  A mag 6.7 star is 24' SE, along with a small triangle of mag 9.3-10.5 stars.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 245 = J. 1-90 on 2 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 246 = MCG +00-07-078 = CGCG 388-093 = PGC 10116

02 40 28.6 +02 28 43; Cet

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  PA = 48°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; nearly in the fairly faint bin; small, round, 20"-24" diameter.  Contains a very small brighter core and stellar nucleus.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with a mag 10.8 star 5' SW and a mag 10.6 star 5' SE.  A mag 15.1 star is just off the SW side.  IC 244, a fainter galaxy, lies 22' NW. Member of the NGC 1016 group (USGC U137)

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 246 = Sw. 7-6 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; triangle with 2 st.; eee diff."  Swift was probably referring to two mag 10.5 stars 5' SW and 5' SSE.  His RA was 22 seconds too small, though Herbert Howe corrected the RA based on a micrometric measure at the Denver observatory (repeated in IC 2).

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IC 247 = MCG -02-07-052 = PGC 10100

02 40 08.8 -11 44 02; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 45°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~40"x30", fairly even surface brightness with only a weak even concentration to a slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14.8 star is 1.3' WNW.  Located 12' NE of mag 4.8 Epsilon Ceti!

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 247 = J. 1-91 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position matches PGC 10100.

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IC 248 = UGC 2170 = MCG +03-07-044 = CGCG 462-043 = PGC 10197

02 41 25.8 +17 48 44; Ari

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 145°

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, gradually brighter middle, almost round, diffuse halo.  Located 11' WNW of a mag 8.2 SAO 93057 in the NGC 1020 group.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 248 in Sep 1891 while unsuccessfully searching for NGC 1059 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II). His position is accurate.

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IC 249 = NGC 1051 = NGC 961 = MCG -01-07-033 = UGCA 40 = PGC 10172

02 41 02.4 -06 56 09; Cet

V = 12.6;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 45°

 

See observing notes for NGC 1051.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 249 = J. 1-92 on 28 Jan 1892 and recorded "pB, almost round, 20" diameter, uniform appearance."  He added the note "distinct from NGC 1051".  His position corresponds with NGC 1051 despite his comment.  This galaxy was probably first discovered by Ormond Stone in 1886, though Harold Corwin found he made a 10 minute error in RA in LM 2-338 (later NGC 961).

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IC 250 = MCG -02-07-064 = PGC 10162

02 40 54.3 -13 18 49; Cet

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 126°

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, 45" diameter, very low surface brightness with only a very weak concentration.  A 1.5' pair of mag ~10.5 stars lies ~4' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 250 = J. 1-93 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 251 = MCG -03-07-054 = PGC 10184

02 41 13.8 -14 57 28; Cet

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 10.6 star is 50" SE. IC 252 lies 10' NE and IC 253 is 14' SE (along with NGC 1065).  Mag 7.3 HD 16826 lies 10' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 251 = J. 1-94 on 5 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 252 = LEDA 144971

02 41 45.1 -14 50 54; Cet

Size 0.45'x0.25';  PA = 26°

 

24" (1/23/22): at 375x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, very small brighter nucleus, ~24"x20".  Pretty similar to IC 251, which lies 10' SW. Member of a small group (USGC S093), which includes IC 253 and NGC 1065.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 252 = J. 1-95 on 5 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 144971 as IC 252.

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IC 253 = MCG -03-07-058 = PGC 10226

02 42 05.7 -15 02 50; Cet

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.65'

 

24" (1/23/22): at 375x; relatively bright with a high surface brightness, fairly small, round, 30" diameter. well concentrated with a very small brighter nucleus rising to a stellar peak. Forms a similar pair with NGC 1065 2.7' S and both of these galaxies have dim companions!  LEDA 144985, 1.3' SW of IC 253, was extremely faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, very low surface brightness, 0.3' diameter.

 

17.5" (12/20/95): IC 253 is in a compact group (SCG 19) and forms a pair with NGC 1065 2.7' S.  Fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus, 30" diameter.  Interestingly, IC 253 appeared slightly larger and brighter than NGC 1065!  Located 9' NE of mag 7.6 SAO 48549.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 253 = J. 1-96, along with IC 254, on 5 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate. It seems strange that Swift, who discovered NGC 1065, missed this object.

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IC 254 = LEDA 3642494

02 42 05.0 -15 06 24; Cet

Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 55°

 

24" (1/23/22): at 375x; very faint, very small, round, at most 15" diameter.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1065 1.0' NNE. This pair is matched by IC 253/LEDA 144985 located ~3' N.  Mag 7.3 HD 16826 is 8' W.

 

17.5" (12/20/95): appears as an extremely faint, round, barely nonstellar spot just 1.0' SSW of NGC 1065 in a small group with IC 253.  It required averted vision to glimpse and appeared less than 10" in diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 254 = J. 1-97, along with IC 253, on 5 Dec 1891.  Despite Javelle's good position, MCG, PGC, RNGC, HyperLEDA and SIMBAD incorrectly equate IC 254 with brighter NGC 1065.  NED has the correct identification.

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IC 255 = MCG +03-08-008 = CGCG 463-012 = PGC 10540

02 47 03.2 +16 17 17; Ari

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 45°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 375x; extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~20"x10", very low even surface brightness. A mag 12 star is 2' E. Located 5' N of NGC 1088 and 7' WSW of a mag 9.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 255 = J. 2-572 on 29 Dec 1893 while viewing and measuring NGC 1088. He recorded "very faint, round, 20" diameter, without concentration.  It is 5 seconds of RA preceding a mag 12 star."  His position is a bit off, but CGCG 463-012 matches the description.

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IC 256 = V Zw 280 = PGC 10737

02 49 40.3 +46 57 17; Per

V = 15.3;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

17.5" (10/24/87): extremely faint and small, slightly elongated N-S, ~15"x10".  Located 26" N of an easier mag 15 star.  Requires averted and visible ~50% of the time.  Situated 1.6' SW of IC 257 (2nd in V Zw 280, a trio of three compact ellipticals).  Identification not certain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 256 = Sw. 8-2, along with IC 257 and IC 260, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; lE; S; in vacancy. 1st of 3."  His position is 5 seconds of RA west and 0.3' south of IC 257.  The galaxy described here is 1' due south of this offset.  It's possible, though, it's too faint to have been seen by Swift, but it was detected in my scope (knowing the exact location in advance) and Swift has a few other faint discoveries in the same ballpark.  But Courtney Seligman argues that IC 256 is the galaxy generally listed as IC 257 and that IC 257 is probably nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 257 = UGC 2298 = MCG +08-06-011 = CGCG 554-008 = PGC 10729

02 49 45.5 +46 58 34; Per

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 155°

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.5'.  The slightly brighter core contains a quasi-stellar nucleus at moments.  A trio of very faint galaxies lies close SW (including IC 256?).  IC 260 lies 13' E.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 257 = Sw. 8-3 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; in vacancy; v diff.  2nd of 3 [with IC 256 and IC 260]."  Courtney Seligman argues that this galaxy is IC 256 and that IC 257 is probably non-existent.

 

William Herschel made the first observation  on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645) and recorded "a few very small stars mixed with very faint seeming nebulosity, in the direction of the meridian [north-south]; most probably only a patch."  Caroline didn't assign this object a general discovery number due to his uncertainty, so it wasn't catalogued, but his position is just 2' N of IC 257 and the orientation of the galaxy (PA 155°) is a reasonable match with his description.  The galaxy was only 5° from the zenith as it crossed the meridian, so he was observing at a very high elevation of 85°.  Steinicke confirms this early discovery (email April 2015).

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IC 258 = UGC 2306 = CGCG 539-107 = PGC 10730

02 49 46.1 +41 03 06; Per

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 165°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x fairly faint to faint, slightly elongated N-S, 30"x24", small brighter nucleus.  A mag 10 star is 1.9' ENE and interferes a bit with viewing.  IC 258 is the brighter of a close pair with IC 259 1.0' WNW.

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered IC 258, along with IC 259, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in most modern sources.  See notes on IC 259.

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IC 259 = CGCG 539-106 = PGC 10721

02 49 40.9 +41 03 18; Per

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 126°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus.  A star (close double on the DSS) is at the northwest edge [17" from center]."  Forms a close pair with IC 258 1.0' ESE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 259, along with IC 258, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He measured the offsets for both objects correctly with respect to 10th magnitude BD +40°608.  But he applied his RA (time) offset in the wrong direction for the western object, which he described as double.  So the computed position for IC 258 is east of IC 259, placing these objects out of RA order in the sky.  As a result, the identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in UGC, CGCG, PGC, HyperLeda, WikiSky, etc.  NED has the correct identifications.

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IC 260 = UGC 2325 = MCG +08-06-014 = CGCG 554-011 = PGC 10812

02 51 00.9 +46 57 17; Per

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175°

 

17.5" (10/2/99): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, ~30"x24", weak concentration.  A pair of mag 11.5 stars is close southwest (0.7' and 1.4') and collinear with the galaxy.  In a group with IC 257 located 13' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 260 = Sw. 8-4, along with IC 256 and IC 257, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; in line with 2 nr faint stars. 3rd of 3."  His position is accurate.

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IC 261 = NGC 1120 = MCG -03-08-028 = PGC 10664

02 49 04.1 -14 28 15; Eri

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40°

 

17.5" (11/18/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Even concentration to a bright core and nearly stellar nucleus.  A faint, close double star lies 4.2' SSW and 5' NW is a small group of four mag 13 stars (includes a 30" pair).

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 261 = J. 1-98 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position matches MCG -03-08-028 = PGC 10664.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 1 Jan 1886 and catalogued as list 1-72 (later NGC 1120), but Leavenworth's RA (to the nearest minute) is 1 minute too small (common error).  Corwin confirms Leavenworth's sketch matches this galaxy, so it is certain IC 261 = NGC 1120. Some sources, such as the MCG, label this galaxy IC 261 although NGC 1120 should be the primary designation.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 262 = UGC 2335 = MCG +07-06-080 = CGCG 539-114 = PGC 10850

02 51 43.3 +42 49 42; Per

V = 13.6;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 36°

 

24" (11/7/18): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, dominated by a bright elongated core or bar running ~40"x15" NNW-SSE.  The bar is encased in a faint, roundish halo ~50" diameter.  Situated in a very rich star field with a mag 10 star 2.5' N.  A mag 13 star (unequal double) is 1.5' SSE.

 

Édouard Stephan discovered IC 262 = Sw. 8-5 on 24 Nov 1870.  His position was just 1' to the NW but he assumed it was GC 612 (= NGC 1106), which is 1.2° further south!  Due to this error, he didn't list it as new in any discovery list.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 262 again on 3 Nov 1888.  The description in the 8th discovery list (#5) reads "eeF; pS; R; bet. a F and a pB *; ee diff." and the position is just off the west side.  The 10th magnitude star 2.4' N is probably the "pB *" mentioned in the description.  Swift received credit in the IC.

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IC 263 = CGCG 389-027 = PGC 10716

02 49 40.0 -00 04 12; Cet

Size 0.7'x0.45';  PA = 168°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~30" diameter, moderate surface brightness, slightly brighter core.  IC 264 lies 13' WSW, NGC 1104 is 20' SW and UGC 2324 is 13' NE.

 

18" (1/15/07): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", even surface brightness, seen with direct vision.  Located 20' NE of NGC 1104 and 105' due E of M77.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 263 = J. 1-99 on 9 Nov 1891.  There is nothing at his position, but Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star, which should have been GSC 4699-221.  When his offsets are applied to this star, the position lands on this galaxy.  This galaxy is not identified in IC 263 in HyperLEDA, though NED and SIMBAD use the correct identification.

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IC 264 = Mrk 1401 = PGC 10644

02 48 47.6 -00 06 33; Cet

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 27°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter. This small galaxy (only the core region was noticed) was just held steadily with averted vision.  A mag 11.7 star is 1.7' ENE. IC 263 = PGC 10716 lies 13' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 264 = J. 1-100, along with IC 263, on 9 Nov 1891.  There is nothing near his position (for either galaxy).  But, as in the case of IC 263, Javelle misidentified his reference star, which should have been GSC 4699-221.  In addition, Harold Corwin found a second error -- his RA offset from the star has the wrong sign.  Once both of these errors are corrected, his position falls on Mrk 1401.  As expected, neither PGC nor HyperLeda recognize this galaxy as IC 264, but it is correctly identified in SIMBAD and NED.

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IC 265 = MCG +07-07-006 = CGCG 539-127 = CGCG 540-009 = AWM 7-3 = PGC 10978

02 54 44.0 +41 39 19; Per

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 5.5' NE of NGC 1129 in the cluster AWM 7 and 4.5' NW of a mag 9.7 star in a cluster.  PGC 10962 lies 3' W.  Appears brighter than the CGCG magnitude of 15.7pg.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 265 = Sw. 8-6 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; [NGC] 1129 near."  His position is fairly accurate.  Listed in the MCG as +07-07-006, but not identified as IC 265.

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IC 266 = MCG +07-07-010 = CGCG 540-012 = CGCG 539-130 = PGC 11002 = LEDA 2195448

02 55 04.6 +42 15 47; Per

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 128°

 

24" (11/7/18): at 260x and 375x very small but high surface brightness, ~20" diameter, contains a bright stellar nucleus.  Situated in a rich star field with a string of five mag 13.5-14.5 stars is off the west side, trailing south towards a mag 10.7 star 5' SSW.  IC 266 is located 25' ENE of NGC 1122.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 266 = Sw. 8-7 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eF; eS; R."  His position is pretty accurate, although MCG failed to label MCG +07-07-010 as IC 266.

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IC 267 = UGC 2368 = MCG +02-08-028 = PGC 10932

02 53 50.2 +12 50 57; Ari

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 15°

 

24" (12/21/16): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly large, elongated ~4:1 NNW-SSE, ~1.7'x0.4', irregular surface brightness.  This appears to be a central bar (verified on the DSS) rather than an edge-on galaxy.  Either a star is superimposed at the center or the galaxy has a bright stellar nucleus!  Located 10' SSE of NGC 1134.

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 NNW-SSE, 1.8'x0.3', broad weak concentration.  Located 10.3' SSE of NGC 1134.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 267 = Sw. 7-7 = Big 138 on 8 Nov 1877 and recorded "eeF; pS; E; sf of GC 620 [NGC 1134]."  His RA is 35 seconds too large.  Bigourdan independently found it again on 28 Nov 1888 and measured an accurate position.  Both are credited in the IC, though Bigourdan is listed first (perhaps because of Swift's poor position).

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IC 268 = MCG -02-08-024 = PGC 11032

02 55 27.0 -14 06 11; Eri

Size 0.9'x0.5';  PA = 68°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; extremely to very faint, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 SW-NE, ~25"x12", very low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 269 2.2' N with a mag 10.7 star the same distance ENE.  Faintest in a quartet with IC 270 and 272.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 268 = J. 1-101, along with IC 269, 270 and 272, on 1 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 269 = MCG -02-08-023 = PGC 11033

02 55 26.5 -14 04 01; Eri

V = 14.4;  Size 1.2'x0.35';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 126°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 or 3:1 NW-SE, ~40"x15", very small bright core/nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 268 2.2' S and a quartet with IC 270 and 272 to the SW.  A mag 10.7 star 2.2' SE forms an isosceles triangle with IC 269 and 268.  Situated 8' ESE of mag 7.1 HD 18183.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 269 = J. 1-102, along with ICs 268, 270 and 272, on 1 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 270 = MCG -02-08-028 = PGC 11061

02 55 44.2 -14 12 28; Eri

Size 1.3'x1.2'

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 45"x35".  Contains a bright core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 14.6 star is at the southwest edge.  Situated close east of an isosceles triangle of mag 11.2/11.8 and 12.6 stars [sides 1.3', 1.7', 1.7'].  In a quartet with IC 272 5.5' ENE and IC 268 and 269 ~8' NNW.  IC 270 appears to the brightest in a larger group at a mean z = .03 (distance ~400 million l.y.) including NGCs 1150, 1151, 1157 and 1158.

 

17.5" (10/17/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, ~0.9'x0.6'.  Forms the northeast vertex of a small trapezium with three mag 12 stars 1.0' SW, 1.5' WNW and 2.2' SW.  Forms a pair with IC 272 5.5' ENE.  NGC 1158, which is a fainter galaxy, lies 24' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 270 = J. 1-103, along with IC 272, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-028.  IC 270 and IC 272 appear to be the brightest in a cluster of faint galaxies (or superimposed on a more distant cluster).  IC 270 was the host of SN 2004go.

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IC 271 = MCG -02-08-029 = PGC 11078

02 55 59.4 -12 00 28; Eri

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  PA = 125°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; faint, small, diffuse, low even surface brightness, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Two mag 12/12.5 stars less than 5' N and a mag 11 star is 4.6' small, with the galaxy directly between.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 271 = J. 2-573 on 14 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 272 = MCG -02-08-030 = PGC 11086

02 56 06.4 -14 11 12; Eri

Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 27°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 35"'x25", low even surface brightness, visible continuously with averted.  Last in a quartet with brighter IC 270 5.5' WSW.  IC 268 and 269 are 11' and 12' NW.

 

17.5" (10/17/98): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~0.8'x0.6'.  Forms a pair with brighter IC 270 5.5' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 272 = J. 1-104, along with IC 270, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-030.

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IC 273 = UGC 2425 = MCG +00-08-052 = CGCG 389-052 = LGG 079-002 = PGC 11156

02 57 10.8 +02 46 30; Cet

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  PA = 32°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 375x; fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, ~1' in diameter, bright bulging core, fainter extensions, easily picked up at 228x.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 273 = J. 2-574 on 6 Jan 1894 and recorded "pB, lE in PA 235° [SW-NE], 40" long, very small nucleus."  His position is 1' N of UGC 2425 and the description is a perfect match.

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IC 275 = V Zw 309 = PGC 11388 = PGC 11389 = PGC 11390

03 00 57.3 +44 20 54; Per

Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

24" (12/12/17): IC 275 is a triple system with the two closer components (PGC 11388 and PGC 11389) separated by 15" N-S.  At 375x; the combined glow appeared faint, fairly small, roundish, ~0.4' diameter, with a low irregular surface brightness.   I was confident that 2 or 3 extremely faint stellar or quasi-stellar nuclei were glimpsed and made a diagram of the orientation.

 

Checking the SDSS at home, my diagram matched PGC 11388 and PGC 11389, but my third object tuned out to be a mag 15.8 star only 18" NW of PGC 11389.  I apparently missed PGC 11390, which is 30" E of PGC 11389 and perhaps the faintest of the trio.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 275 = Sw. 8-9 on 31 Oct 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; F * nr p; D * nr sp; bet. 2 st.; f of 2 [with IC 274]."  His position matches V Zw 309, a triple system, with the brighter two components forming a 15" pair oriented N-S.  Although the three components are listed in the PGC (from V Zw 309), neither HyperLeda nor SIMBAD labels any of the 3 as IC 275.  Swift's "Double * near south-preceding" may be a ~30" pair ~2.5' SW.

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IC 276 = MCG -03-08-054 = LGG 081-006 = PGC 11264

02 58 41.1 -15 42 11; Eri

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly bright, moderately large, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE with a slightly bulging center and very thin extensions, ~1.0'x0.25', high surface brightness core.  A string of stars extends NE with a mag 10.7 star 12' NE.

 

IC 276 is a member of the NGC 1209 Group (LGG 81), which includes NGCs 1145, 1163, 1188, 1189, 1190 and 1199.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 276 = J. 2-575 on 14 Dec 1892.  His position is good.

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IC 277 = UGC 2460 = Mrk 602 = MCG +00-08-064 = CGCG 389-060 = LGG 079-005 = PGC 11336

02 59 59.6 +02 46 17; Cet

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 45°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 36"x24", very small brighter core.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 277 = J. 2-576 on 6 Jan 1894 and recorded "pB, R, 40" diameter, Nucl = 12.5, a little mottled."

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IC 278 = UGC 2481 = MCG +06-07-032 = CGCG 524-044 = PGC 11414

03 01 30.4 +37 45 58; Per

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25"-30" diameter. A mag 13.8 star is at the west edge of the halo.  The larger, very low surface brightness outer halo wasn't noticed.  A mag 11 star is 1.6' NW.  Located 27' SE of the mag 6.1 star HD 618552.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 278 on 13 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  His position was accurate.

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IC 279 = CGCG 463-045 = PGC 11401

03 01 12.2 +16 12 33; Ari

Size 0.7'x0.45';  PA = 165°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; faint, small, irregularly round, 15"-20" diameter, occasional very faint stellar nucleus. Located 9' SW of mag 8.6 HD 18773.  Probably a member of galaxy cluster AGC 397, which is centered ~1° to the WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 279 = J. 2-577 on 29 Dec 1893.  His position is off the north side of CGCG 463-045.

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IC 281 = NGC 1177 = MCG +07-07-020 = CGCG 540-033 = PGC 11581

03 04 37.1 +42 21 46; Per

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

See observing notes for NGC 1177

 

Lewis Swift found IC 281 = Sw. 8-11 on 1 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeeF; vS; * close n; 1175 nr."  His position falls between NGC 1175 and NGC 1177, but the description mentions the star to the north, so IC 281 = NGC 1177.  Surprisingly, Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence. See Corwin's notes.

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IC 282 = NGC 1198 = UGC 2533 = MCG +07-07-024 = CGCG 540-038 = PGC 11648

03 06 13.3 +41 50 56; Per

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 120°

 

See observing notes for NGC 1198.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 282 = Sw. 8-12 on 27 Oct 1888 and reported "eF; S; R; bet. 2 nr. st."  There is nothing at Swift's position but 1 minute of RA further east is NGC 1198, discovered by Stephan in 1880, and his description applies to this galaxy.  Because of the discrepancy in positions, Dreyer probably assumed IC 282 and NGC 1198 were different objects.  Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson agree IC 282 = NGC 1198.  This galaxy is identified  as NGC 1198 only in all sources except NED, which equates the numbers.

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IC 283 = MCG +00-08-076 = CGCG 389-069 = KUG 0301-003 = PGC 11539

03 03 50.5 -00 12 16; Cet

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 5°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated N-S, low and nearly even surface brightness, 25"-30" diameter.  Located ~1° NW of NGC 1211.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 283 = J. 1-105 on 4 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 284 = UGC 2531 = MCG +07-07-023 = LGG 082-003 = PGC 11643

03 06 10.2 +42 22 18; Per

V = 11.5;  Size 4.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 13°

 

24" (1/25/14): at 200x and 375x appeared moderately bright, large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, at least 3'x1.5', weak concentration to a brighter core.  Two mag 15 stars are superimposed on the east edge of the core.  V Zw 319 = PGC 11646 is on the southwest edge of the halo, 0.7' SW of center!  The companion appeared very faint, round, only 12" diameter. A 17" pair of mag 11.5 stars lies 2.5' NW.  IC 288 lies 15' E.

 

NED has no distance info on V Zw 319, though there is no indication of interaction on the SDSS and an arm from IC 284 is silhouetted on V Zw 319, indicating it may be a background object.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, gradually increases to a small bright core.  A mag 11 double at 16" separation is 2.5' NW.  Located 18' E of NGC 1175.

 

Édouard Stephan probably discovered IC 284 = Sw. 8-13 on 3 Nov 1877 and indicated it as new in his notebook.  His rough position was 5.5' too far east, though, adding some uncertainty to the identification. Stephan never published the discovery.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 284 again on 27 Oct 1888.  He included it in his 8th discovery list (#13) with description, "eeF, pL, lE, D * np, bet 2 st".  His RA was 12 seconds too small but the comment "double star north-preceding" confirms the identity.

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IC 285 = MCG -02-08-044 = PGC 11557

03 04 06.2 -12 00 56; Eri

Size 1.1'x0.2';  PA = 117°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; nearly fairly faint, fairly small, elongated at least 2:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness, ~40"x18".  Located 3.2' SE of NGC 1200 in a distinctive quartet.  The major axis of the galaxy points to the center of NGC 1200.

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, very low even surface brightness.  Last of four in the NGC 1200 compact group (USGC S110) with NGC 1200 3' WNW.

 

Pietro Baracchi discovered IC 285 = J. 2-578 on 7 Dec 1885, during an observation of NGC 1200 with the Great Melbourne Telescope.  He commented "almost as faint as [NGC 1195] and as small; vvF, vvS.  Indistinct outline." His diagram of the field includes NGC 1200, along with NGCs 1195 and 1196. IC 285 is accurately placed with the note "[NGC 1200] and new."

 

Stephane Javelle rediscovered IC 285 = J. 2-578 on 7 Dec 1893 while viewing NGC 1195, 1196 and 1200. As Baracchi's discovery was never published, Javelle received credit in the IC.

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IC 287 = LEDA 170040

03 04 57.8 -12 04 14; Eri

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 9°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 25"x20", small slightly brighter core region.  This galaxy was surprisingly easy with B magnitude of 15.4.  Located 16' ESE of NGC 1200 in a group (USGC S110).  A mag 10.8 star is 2.2' E and a mag 8.6 star (HD 19178) is 6.4' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 287 = J. 2-579 on 7 Dec 1893.  His position was accurate, though since this galaxy was not included in the PGC, the IC designation is not attached to LEDA 170040.  NED uses the IC designation.

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IC 288 = UGC 2544 = MCG +07-07-027 = CGCG 540-043 = LGG 088-001 = PGC 11702

03 07 32.9 +42 23 15; Per

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 42°

 

24" (1/31/14): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  IC 284 lies 15' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 288 = Sw. 8-14 on 31 Oct 1888 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "vF, vS, R, 2 pB st nf point to it, r[esolution] suspected".  His position is 1.6' SW of UGC 2544 = PGC 11702, though the two "pB" stars are south-following.  MCG doesn't identify +07-07-027 as IC 288.  The NGC 2000.0 classifies this galaxy as an open cluster, probably as Dreyer changed "r suspected" to "? S Cl".

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IC 289 = PK 138+2.1 = PN G138.8+02.8 = Hb 1

03 10 19.2 +61 19 01; Cas

V = 13.5;  Size 42"x28"

 

48" (10/27/16): at 610x unfiltered; bright, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Annular with an irregularly brighter rim that is brightest on the northwest side.  The northern end is slightly brighter in general (less than a 90° arc).  A faint central star was visible most of the time.  We didn't look for the outer halo at lower power.  IC 289 resides in a rich star 1.8' NNW of a mag 10.1 star.

 

48" (10/25/14): at 375x unfiltered; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.6'x0.5'.  Weakly annular with a slightly brighter rim and irregularly lit darker center that contains a very faint central star.  A thin, very low surface brightness outer halo is more elongated along the minor axis, creating a roughly circular halo.

 

18" (11/13/07): at 300x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~35"x30" with an irregular surface brightness.  The rim was very slightly brighter than the interior with a strong impression of irregularities.  The rim sometimes appeared slightly brighter along the north side or contained a very faint stellar knot.  At 450x, there was an occasional faint sparkle in the interior, but I was uncertain if it was the central star.  Located 1.8' N of a mag 10 star.  A mag 14 star lies just 45" NE.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 140x, IC 289 was seen as a fairly faint, 35" to 40" disc with a modest contrast gain using a UHC filter.  Situated 2' N of a mag 10 star and near the tip of two curving strings of stars which head north and NW from IC 289.  Excellent view at 380x - the planetary is slightly elongated and has a mottled appearance with a marginally brighter rim, particularly on the W or NW side, giving an impression of weak annularity.  At moments, there was a brief sparkle at the center, possibly the central star.  A mag 14 star is 45" NE of center and a mag 13 star lies 1.3' following.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): at 79x and OIII filter appears faint, small, round.  At 166x and UHC filter can just hold steadily with averted vision, fairly small, almost round.

 

8": at 100x and UHC filter this planetary was very faint, very small.  Situated near the tip of two converging rows of mag 10-12 stars.  I made several difficult positive sightings with the C8 under poor transparency in El Cerrito!

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 289 = Sw. 8-15 on 2 Sep 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bet 2 vF st."

 

Hubble first classified IC 289 as a PN based on objective prism images taken with a 10-inch Cooke lens.  His 1921 paper "Twelve New Planetary Nebulae" (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1921PASP...33..174H) includes a half-dozen other known nebulae (NGC 2818, NGC 6072, NGC 7048, NGC 7635 (error), IC 1470, IC 4670), as well as announcing 5 previously unknown nebulae (Hb 4, Hb 5, Hb 7, Hb, 8 and Hb 12).  Hubble noted that IC 1470 and NGC 7635 "may possibly be transition forms between planetaries and gaseous nebulae."

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IC 290 = IC 1884 = UGC 2561 = CGCG 540-047 = PGC 11817

03 09 42.7 +40 58 27; Per

V = 14.6;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 131°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, elongated ~5:2 NW-SE, ~25"x10", low nearly even surface brightness.  Located 17' E of Algol and 2.8' NNW of mag 8.7 SAO 38614.  IC 1883 = NGC 1212 is 4.9' S.

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, very small, appears as a tiny elongated streak, ~25"x8".  Located 5' N of IC 1883 (= NGC 1212) and 2.8' NNW of mag 8.7 SAO 38614 at the west side of AGC 426.  Two mag 12/13 stars lie 50" E and 1.3' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 290 = Sw. 8-16, along with IC 292, 293 and 294, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; S; R: in field with Algol."  His position is just off the northwest edge.  Barnard independently discovered the galaxy (as well as the other Swift discoveries) on 26 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He communicated the result directly to Dreyer who didn't notice the equivalence with the previous entry.  As a result, IC 290 = IC 1884. UGC identifies this galaxy as IC 1884, although IC 290 should be the primary designation by prior discovery.

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IC 291 = MCG -02-09-001 = PGC 11699

03 07 26.5 -12 35 15; Eri

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  PA = 90°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x, 327x and 375x; fairly faint, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~45"x20", slight central condensation.  Mag 9.5 HD 19433 is 7' NW.  STF 357 = 9.6/10.8 at 9" separation lies 12' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 291 = J. 1-106 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 292 = IC 1887 = UGC 2567 = MCG +07-07-030 = CGCG 540-049 = PGC 11846

03 10 12.9 +40 45 56; Per

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 75°

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.9'x0.4', very weak concentration.  Located 2.4' S of a mag 10 star at the west edge of AGC 426.  NGC 1212 lies 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 292 = Sw. 8-17, along with IC 293, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; * nr s; bet 2 st.; in field with Algol."  His position is fairly accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered this galaxy (as well as IC 293) on 23 Nov 1888 while sweeping near Algol with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and he recatalogued it as IC 1887.  So, IC 292 = IC 1887.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 293 = IC 1888 = MCG +07-07-031 = CGCG 540-053 = LGG 087-006 = PGC 11873

03 10 56.2 +41 08 14; Per

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 90°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; faint, small, round, 20" diameter, broad and weak concentration.  Situated in a rich star field 6' SW of mag 8.1 HD 19663 (a wide pair).  This member of AGC 426 lies 14' SSW of NGC 1224, which was the previous target.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 293 = Sw. 8-18, along with IC 292, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; S; R; in finder field with Algol."  His position is less than 1' W of PGC 11873. E.E. Barnard independently discovered this galaxy (as well as IC 292) on 23 Nov 1888 while sweeping near Algol with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and he recatalogued it as IC 1887.  So, IC 293 = IC 1887.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20; Per

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 294 = Sw. 8-19, along with IC 290, 292, 293 and 295, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; iR; in finder field with Algol."  Barnard independently found this galaxy (along with IC 292 and 293) while sweeping near Algol on 23 Nov 1888 and noted "faint, moderately size, follows several stars."  Barnard send the discovery notice directly to Dreyer at some point resulting in the designation IC 1889.

 

Swift placed IC 295 close southeast, but there is nothing there.  IC 296 = Sw. 8-21, discovered by Swift just 3 nights later, is perhaps another observation (position matches and nothing else nearby he might have picked up, except for faint stars).  So, IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 (and perhaps IC 295!).  CGCG labels this galaxy as IC 296 while MCG and RC3 lists it as IC 294.

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IC 296 = IC 294 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20; Per

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 296 = Sw. 8-21 on 14 Sep 1888 and described as "eF, pS, irr R, F D * p."  His position is a good match with UGC 2574.  This galaxy was probably discovered 3 nights earlier by Swift and reported in the same list as #19 (later IC 294).  Some sources identify this galaxy as IC 294, others as IC 296 or both.  IC 1889 is an independent discovery by Barnard a couple of months later.

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IC 298 = Arp 147 = I Zw 11 = VV 787 = UGCA 57 = CGCG 390-016 = MCG +00-09-015 = PGC 1190197 = PGC 11890

03 11 18.9 +01 18 53; Cet

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 126°

 

48" (10/23/11): at 488x both components of this ring system were easily resolved.  The eastern "collider" component (identified as IC 298A in PGC but IC 298B in NED) appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, 24"x9", very small brighter core.  The ring component (no nucleus) just west is a faint, small, irregularly round glow, ~20" diameter with a low but very uneven surface brightness.  The rim was slightly brighter, creating a weak annular appearance, particularly on the east side.  The system is located 3' NW of a mag 9.3 star.

 

18" (1/26/09): at 285x appeared very faint and small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~18"x9", low even surface brightness.  Located 3' NW of mag 9.3 SAO 111034.  This is a remarkable pair of disrupted galaxies (Arp 147) forming a "10" or "IC" on images.  The fainter western component (collisional Ring), forming the "C" or "0" was not visible.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 298 = J. 2-580 on 29 Dec 1893 and recorded "Small, nearly round, 1 'in diameter. It looks like the nebula covers two very small bright spots."  Based on his description, it appears Javelle saw both components described in my observation.  MCG appears to misidentify IC 298 as MCG +00-09-015 instead of MCG +00-09-014.  Although IC 298 applies to both systems, PGC identifies the ring as IC 298 and the eastern component as IC 298A, while NED identifies the ring as IC 298A and the eastern system as IC 298B.

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IC 299 = LEDA 942795

03 11 02.6 -13 06 35; Eri

Size 0.7'x0.6';  PA = 175°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, small, round, compact well defined 20" halo.  A mag 14.3 star is within 1' ESE and mag 9.8 HD 19811 is 3.4' NW.  Located 9' N of mag 6.4 HD 19850.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 299 = J. 1-107 on 13 Oct 1891 and recorded "vF, vS, R, slightly brighter middle."  His position is accurate although HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 942795 as IC 299.

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IC 300 = LEDA 2198416

03 14 16.0 +42 24 55; Per

V = 14.8;  Size 0.55'x0.55'

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; faint, very small, round, ~15" diameter [core of the galaxy], nearly even surface brightness.  This member of AGC 426 is situated 9' SW of mag 6.1 HD 20063 and 13' NNW of IC 301.

 

Alternate identification of IC 300:  UGC 2590 at 03 13 03.1 +42 27 26

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is barely off the SW side [30" from center].  Located 11' NE of mag 6.2 HD 19736.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 300 = Sw. 8-23 on 15 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; S; R; 8 mag * in field sp; p of 2 [with IC 301]."  There is nothing at his position but 2.5' SE is LEDA 2198416, which Corwin identifies as IC 300.  He remarks, though, "his description should read 'bet 2 sts 9, np and sf" instead of "* 9 sp.'"  Also, this galaxy is at least a magnitude fainter than IC 301, though both were described as "eF".  So, Corwin mentions its possible the position is well off and this is not the intended object.

 

I noticed that if Swift recorded or transcribed his RA by 1 minute too large, then his position would correspond with UGC 2590.  And there is a bright star to the southwest as Swift described, though HD 19736 (11' SW) is 6th magnitude, so a couple of magnitudes brighter than Swift guesstimated.

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IC 301 = UGC 2606 = MCG +07-07-036 = CGCG 540-063 = PGC 12074

03 14 47.7 +42 13 22; Per

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x1.1'

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, contains a small brighter core and very small nucleus.  A mag 14.7 star is on the NW end.  Located 1.2° NW of NGC 1275 in AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 301 = Sw. 8-23, along with IC 300, on 15 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; f of 2 [with IC 300]."  His position is just 1.2'  WNW of UGC 2606 and there are no other nearby galaxies, so the identification is secure.

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IC 302 = UGC 2595 = MCG +01-09-002 = CGCG 416-004 = PGC 11972

03 12 51.3 +04 42 25; Cet

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 21°

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, 0.8' diameter, fairly low nearly even surface brightness.  No distinct core, but occasionally a faint stellar nucleus seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 302 = J. 2-581 on 15 Dec 1892 and described "pretty faint, pretty small, round, 40" diameter, stellar nucleus."

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IC 303 = LEDA 962881

03 12 40.9 -11 41 24; Eri

Size 0.6'x0.45';  PA = 47°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; very faint, fairly small, round, 15"-20" diameter, diffuse, cannot hold steadily. A mag 14.5 star is 1.5' SE and a mag 9 star (HD 20000) is5' NW. IC 303 is 5' ESE.

 

24" (11/15/22): at 327x; extremely faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  Required knowing the precise position to glimpse (5' E of a mag 10.8 star and 5.4' SE of mag 9.0 HD 20000).  A mag 14.5 star is 1.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 303 = J. 2-582, along with IC 306, on 7 Feb 1893.  His position (offsets from HD 19958) is a perfect match.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 962881 as IC 303.

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IC 304 = UGC 2609 = MCG +06-08-005 = CGCG 525-010 = LGG 089-001 = PGC 12080

03 15 01.4 +37 52 55; Per

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 27°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated ~5:3 SSW-NNE, ~25"x15", slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 30" SE and a mag 13 star is 1.2' SE.  Forms a pair with IC 305 1.4' SSE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 304, along with IC 305, while searching for double stars on 13 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The micrometric position (measured by Barnard) is accurate.

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IC 305 = CGCG 525-012 = MCG +06-08-006 = PGC 12083

03 15 03.8 +37 51 36; Per

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 45°

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, very small bright nucleus, compact, 15" diameter.  Appears brighter (higher surface brightness) than CGCG mag of 15.7 suggests.  A mag 13 star is 50" NE.  Forms a close pair with IC 304 1.4' NNW.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 305, along with IC 304, while searching for double stars on 13 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.

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IC 306 = MCG -02-09-015 = PGC 11985

03 13 00.2 -11 42 56; Eri

Size 0.7'x0.55';  PA = 80°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; extremely or very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", low surface brightness.  Required avarted vision and only visible for a couple of seconds at a time. IC 303 is 4' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 306 = J. 2-583, along with IC 303, on 7 Feb 1893.  Both positions are slightly offset to the southwest of the respective galaxies.

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IC 307 = UGC 2600 = MCG +00-09-027 = CGCG 390-028 = PGC 12017

03 13 45.2 -00 14 29; Cet

V = 13.7;  Size 1.7'x0.75';  PA = 70°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x and 375x; between fairly faint and moderately bright, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, bright core, 45"x15", very low surface brightness outer halo with averted vision. increases diameter to ~1'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 307 = J. 1-108 on 4 Dec 1891.

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IC 308 = UGC 2619 = PGC 12152

03 16 15.8 +41 10 51; Per

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  PA = 3°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; nearly fairly faint, small, round, very small brighter nucleus with a diffuse 20" halo. A mag 14.6 star is at the south edge.  Situated in a rich star field on the southwest side of the Perseus Galaxy Cluster (AGC 426), ~45' WSW of NGC 1275.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 308 = Sw. 8-25 on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; iR; resolvability suspected."  His position is at the east edge of UGC 2619.  Neither UGC, PGC nor HyperLeda label UGC 2619 as IC 308. The same night he discovered a number of galaxies in the Perseus cluster.

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IC 309 = MCG +07-07-043 = CGCG 540-072 = LGG 091-001 = PGC 12141

03 16 06.3 +40 48 16; Per

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Situated between two mag 12 stars 1' NW and 1.4' SE.  UGC 2617 lies 5' NNW but was not seen.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 309 = Sw. 8-26 on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; bet 2 st."

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IC 310 = UGC 2624 = MCG +07-07-045 = PGC 12171

03 16 43.1 +41 19 29; Per

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x fairly bright, moderately large, round, ~45" diameter, strong concentration with a bright core that increases to an intense quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located at the southwest end of the mainline of AGC 426.  UGC 2626 is 3.7' NE and NGC 1259 is 7.4' NE.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.3' SW.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with UGC 2626 3.7' NE.  Member of AGC 426.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 17 year-old son, discovered IC 310 = Sw. 8-28 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; R; [NGC] 1259, 1260 in field."  The position matches UGC 2624, which is probably the brightest member of AGC 426 that is not in the NGC.

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IC 311 = UGC 2625 = CGCG 540-076 = PGC 12177

03 16 46.7 +40 00 13; Per

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  PA = 114°

 

24" (12/6/18): at 375x; nearly fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness.  A faint star (mag ~14.5) is attached at the SW edge.  Situated in a rich star field on a line between a mag 10.6 star 3.8' WSW and a mag 9.5 star (HD 275082) 6' ENE.  This galaxy is probably an outlying member of AGC 426 (1.6° S of the center of the cluster) and has an unusual double dust lane on the SDSS image!

 

STF 369, an attractive mag 6.7/8.0 pair at 3", lies 29' N.  The stars have a subtle color contrast with a very pale orange primary and a blue-white secondary.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 311 = Sw. 8-27 on 10 Oct 1888 and reported "eF, pS, irregularly round, bet 2 st, vF * v. close f."  His RA is 7 seconds too small, but the description is a perfect match with UGC 2625.

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IC 312 = UGC 2644 = MCG +07-07-051 = CGCG 540-086 = LGG 088-004 = PGC 12279

03 18 08.4 +41 45 16; Per

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 125°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', small bright core.  PGC 12288, just 1.9' SE, appeared faint, small, elongated ~3:1 SSW-NNE, ~20"x7".  A mag 14-14.5 star is at the northeast end.  NGC 1265, a low surface brightness galaxy with a bright star superimposed, lies 6' NNE of IC 312.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' E of center.  Forms a pair with PGC 12288 1.9' SE within AGC 426.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 15 star is just off the NE edge.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 312 = Sw. 8-29 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nearly bet. 2 stars."  His position is accurate though MCG doesn't identify MCG +07-07-051 as IC 312.

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IC 313 = UGC 2682 = MCG +07-07-073 = CGCG 540-111 = LGG 097-005 = CR 45 = PGC 12558

03 20 58.1 +41 53 38; Per

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 42°

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.  A double star 14.5/14.5 (separation ~6") is 30" SE, just off the southeast edge.  A superimposed star barely south of the nucleus was not noticed.  IC 316 lies 4.6' NE and a mag 10.5 star is 2.5' N.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, almost round.  A mag 14 star (close double) is off the southeast edge 30" from center.  Forms a pair with IC 316 4.5' NE within AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 313 = Sw. 8-33, along with IC 316, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; e close D * v near south."

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IC 314 = NGC 1289 = UGC 2666 = MCG +00-09-054 = CGCG 390-055 = PGC 12342

03 18 49.8 -01 58 24; Eri

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100°

 

See observing notes for NGC 1289.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 314 = Big. 140 on 14 Dec 1887.  His position matches UGC 2666 = PGC 12342.  This galaxy was discovered by Lewis Swift on 1 Sep 1886 and described as "vF; S; R; 4 st following in a row.", but his RA was off by 11 seconds.  Howe measured an accurate micrometric position for NGC 1289 and reported "the "4 st following" are of about mag 10, and are not close together, the farthest being perhaps 10' from the nebula."  It's clear that IC 314 = NGC 1289, although Dreyer didn't make the connection.

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IC 315 = CGCG 416-006 = PGC 12364

03 19 09.3 +04 02 19; Cet

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 45°

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x; very faint, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', very low and nearly even surface brightness.  A 7" pair (BAL 2114) of mag 9.6/10 stars lies 6' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 315 = J. 2-584 on 11 Jan 1894.

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IC 316 = UGC 2688 = MCG +07-07-074 = CGCG 540-112 = PGC 12576 +12578

03 21 19.9 +41 55 50; Per

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 64°

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 316 is a spectacular interacting/merging pair of spiral galaxies with the nuclei of the two galaxies separated by only 11".  The close duo is embedded in a irregular common halo about 1' across.  At 226x, a single fairly faint glow was seen, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~25" diameter.  At 452x (10mm ZAO + 2x Powermate), I immediately noticed a nearly stellar nucleus [of the northern face-on spiral] offset near the north edge creating an unusual appearance.  Often a very faint "spike" [the southern edge-on spiral] was seen close south of the stellar nucleus, angling towards the southeast, ~15"x5".

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval ~N-S, weak concentration.  Located 5' ENE of IC 313 in AGC 426.  A companion is superimposed 0.2' S, but the merged systems were not resolved.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 316 = Sw. 8-34, along with IC 313, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R."  So, Swift did not resolve the two nuclei.

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IC 317 = MCG -02-09-026 = PGC 12346

03 18 55.5 -12 44 25; Eri

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 49°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~0.6'x0.5', weakly enhanced central region.  A 12" pair of mag 15/15.5 star is 1' SW and a mag 14.3 star is 2' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 317 = J. 1-109 on 2 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 318 = MCG -03-09-023 = PGC 12532

03 20 43.8 -14 34 06; Eri

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 134°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, moderate surface brightness, slightly brighter core, 45"x18".

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 318 = J. 1-110 on 1 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 320 = UGC 2732 = MCG +07-08-007 = CGCG 541-006 = PGC 12819

03 25 59.2 +40 47 20; Per

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  PA = 48°

 

24" (12/20/17): at 225x and 375x; faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 20"x15" (core region only), faint stellar nucleus.  A very faint star [mag 15.3] is superimposed on the SW side that is similar in brightness to the nucleus, and a brighter mag 14.5 star is off the WNW edge [27" from center].  UGC 2730, an extremely low surface brightness edge-on 2.8' SSW, appeared  extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, ~20"x6"?.  IC 320 is an outlying member of AGC 426 at the southeast edge of the cluster, 1.4° from NGC 1275.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 320 = Sw. 8-35 on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; vF * close p."  His position is just off the west edge of UGC 2732 and the description of the nearby star matches.

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IC 321 = MCG -03-09-035 = PGC 12742

03 24 30.0 -14 59 07; Eri

Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, very small bright core.  This is a relatively easy IC galaxy and was seen immediately and visible continuously.  Several mag 12 and fainter stars are to the N and NE and mag 8 HD 21252 is 11.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 321 = J. 1-111 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 322 = CGCG 390-089 = CGCG 416-008 = PGC 12820

03 26 00.5 +03 40 50; Tau

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; faint, round, ~25" diameter, irregular surface brightness, very slightly brighter core. A mag 13 star is just over 1' W. A group of 5 stars mag 11-13 in a trapezoidal configuration is ~6' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 322 = J. 2-585 on 15 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 324 = NGC 1331 = ESO 548-019 = MCG -04-09-012 = IC 324 = PGC 12846

03 26 28.3 -21 21 19; Eri

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

See observing notes for NGC 1331.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 324 on 3 Dec 1888.  His position matches ESO 548-019 = PGC 12846, which was discovered by William Herschel in 1799 and catalogued as H. III-959 (later NGC 1331).  Herschel's single position was 22 seconds of RA too small and happens to fall close to ESO 548-016 = PGC 12827, a galaxy too faint to have been seen by Herschel. In the "Scientific Papers of William Herschel", Dreyer notes for NGC 1331: "This is IC 324, 11 seconds following, 1.2' S of NGC 1332.  NGC 1331 is to be struck out."  The RNGC misidentifies ESO 548-016 as NGC 1331.

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IC 325 = LEDA 1025189

03 30 48.9 -07 02 48; Eri

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; faint, diffuse, round, 25"-30" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 3' E. Located 23' SE of mag 6.0 HD 21665.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 325 = J. 1-112 on 28 Jan 1892 and recorded "very faint, round, 20" diameter with very little central condensation."  His position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't identify LEDA 1025189 as IC 325.

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IC 326 = MCG -03-09-049 = PGC 13030

03 30 36.6 -14 25 32; Eri

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 101°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.6' diameter, weak but even concentration to a slightly brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  IC 328 lies 15' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 326 = J. 1-113 on 1 Dec 1891 and recorded "very faint, fairly large, elongated in the meridian (N-S)."  His position is accurate.

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IC 327 = MCG -03-09-050 = PGC 13057

03 31 10.0 -14 41 32; Eri

V = 14.5;  Size 0.75'x0.45';  PA = 58°

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x; extremely faint, small, ~0.3' diameter, required averted and only occasionally glimpsed but confirmed. Located 3.3' S of IC 328.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 327 = J. 2-586 on 12 Dec 1892 and recorded "eF, vS, poorly defined, v difficult."  His position is fairly accurate.  A noted was added "distinct from nebula 113 [IC 326] and 114 [IC 328] in the first catalogue."

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IC 328 = MCG -03-09-051 = PGC 13063

03 31 11.0 -14 38 16; Eri

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.45';  PA = 16°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, diffuse, nearly even surface brightness.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 13/14 stars 2' NNE and 2' NE.  IC 326 lies 15' NW and difficult IC 327 is 3' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 328 = J. 1-114 on 10 Dec 1892 and recorded "very faint, very small, roughly round, at least 10" diameter."  Nearby IC 327 was discovered 2 nights later.

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IC 329 = MCG +00-10-001 = CGCG 391-002 = WBL 102-001 = PGC 13109

03 32 01.4 +00 16 46; Tau

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 63°

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x; First in an trio with IC 331 4.5' E (roughly symmetrically placed on the east side of the bright star) and IC 330 4.7' NNE.  The three galaxies (catalogued as the group WBL 102) form an isosceles triangle.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 329 = J. 1-115, along with IC 330 and IC 331, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "faint, very small, round, with slight condensation."

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IC 330 = MCG +00-10-002 = CGCG 391-004 = WBL 102-002 = PGC 13117

03 32 08.0 +00 21 12; Tau

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 78°

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 30"x10", small brighter core.  A mag 11.8 star is 1.4' NNE.   Situated 3.9' N of mag 8.3 HD 21926 in a trio with IC 329 and IC 330.  These two galaxies lie  ~2' W and 2.5' E of the bright star, respectively, so the trio has a striking arrangement with IC 330 forming the northern vertex of an isosceles triangle.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 330 = J. 1-116, along with IC 329 and IC 331, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "faint, roughly round, 15" diameter, slightly brighter center."

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IC 331 = MCG +00-10-003 = CGCG 391-005 = WBL 102-003 = PGC 13119

03 32 19.1 +00 16 57; Tau

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, very small bright nucleus.  IC 331 lies 2.6' E of mag 8.3 HD 21926 and is the third in a trio with IC 329 (2' WSW of the bright star) and IC 330.  It's slightly brighter and larger than IC 329.  Although none of these galaxies are bright, the arrangement with the bright star is striking.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 331 = J. 2-117, along with IC 329 and IC 330, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "mag 13 star surrounded by nebulosity, nebulous character uncertain."

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IC 332 = MCG +00-10-004 = CGCG 391-006 = PGC 13137

03 32 37.4 +01 22 57; Tau

V = 13.7;  Size 0.95'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 43°

 

24" (2/24/20): at 260x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" (core region), very low surface brightness halo ~0.6'x0.4' SW-NE.  A mag 10.7 star is 4.4' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 332 = J. 2-587 on 29 Dec 1893 and reported "F, vS, R, 20" diameter.  Like a faint star surrounded by nebulosity."

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IC 334 = UGC 2824 = MCG +13-03-007 = CGCG 346-006 = PGC 13759

03 45 16.9 +76 38 17; Cam

V = 11.3;  Size 2.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 58°

 

17.5" (1/9/99): surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy!  The center is sharply concentrated with a bright 1' core and a much fainter irregular halo at least 2.5' in diameter.  A faint star is superimposed at the south side of the core.  Situated in a starry field with several mag 12/13 stars within a few arc minutes.

 

William Denning discovered IC 334 on 30 Sep 1891 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  He called it "tolerably bright, pretty small" and noted "an extremely faint star involved on the S. side of the nebula.  The latter is fairly conspicuous with a power of 60, and much brighter in the middle."

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IC 335 = IC 1963 = ESO 358-026 = MCG -06-08-031 = LGG 094-008 = PGC 13277

03 35 31.0 -34 26 49; For

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 84°

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated ~E-W, 1.5'x0.4', slightly brighter core, tapering extensions (spindle-shaped).  Located 7.5' E of a mag 11.5 star.  This is one of the brighter non-NGC galaxies in the Fornax I cluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 335 = Sw. 7-8 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded "pF pS; eE; east and west."  His position is 30 seconds of RA west of ESO 358-026 = PGC 13277.  Swift found this galaxy again on 7 Sep 1897 and logged "pB; S; eeeE; a hair line 90°.  See note."  The note mentions "these [along with IC 2135] are the most interesting nebulae I have ever seen, especially No. 56 [IC 1963], which is a nebulous hair-line of one uniform size from end to end."  His second position was 37 seconds of RA too far west (both positions have the same declination) though clearly refers to the same edge-on.  Dreyer assumed they were different, but IC 335 = IC 1963.  Swift included both IC 335 and IC 2135 in a short article on "Remarkable Nebulae" in the 1902 Popular Astronomy after his observing career was over.

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IC 338 = MCG +00-10-007 = CGCG 391-018 = WBL 103-001 = PGC 13373

03 37 38.1 +03 07 08; Tau

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 175°

 

24" (1/23/22): at 260x; faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 2.5' NW.  IC 1967 lies 10' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 338 = J. 2-558 on 13 Oct 1891.  His description reads "vF, S, nearly round, 30" diameter, without condensation, very faint star near."

 

The CGCG incorrectly identifies CGCG 391-019 as IC 338, instead of CGCG 391-018.  The misidentified galaxy lies 9' to the north.

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IC 340 = MCG -02-10-005 = PGC 13464

03 39 29.1 -13 06 54; Eri

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 E-W, ~0.6'x0.2', nearly even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is superimposed on the east side, which I initially thought was a stellar nucleus. A triangle of mag 13-13.5 stars of close SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 340 = J. 1-118 on 13 Oct 1891 and recorded "faint, elongated E-W, 45" long, ends at a 14th mag star."  His position is accurate.

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IC 342 = UGC 2847 = MCG +11-05-003 = PGC 13826

03 46 48.6 +68 05 47; Cam

V = 8.4;  Size 21.4'x20.9';  Surf Br = 14.9

 

24" (3/21/20): at 124x and 200x; this obscured galaxy contained a very bright 30" nucleus that gradually increased to a sharp stellar point.  The nucleus was surrounded by a fairly faint core/central region with a diameter of at least 1'.  A 12th mag star is just 1' N of the nucleus.  This star is the middle of 3 nearly in a line with a mag 12 star 2' E and a mag 11 star 2.5' WSW.  A very diffuse halo of low but irregular surface brightness extends ~15', best viewed at 124x.  A distinctive string of 6 stars oriented NW-SE cuts across the halo to the southwest of the nucleus.  Spiral arm structure was very subtle and only seen in patches or sections, one on the north side, roughly 5' from the core.

 

UGC 2826, located 21' NW, appeared fairly faint, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~0.6'x0.4', low but uneven surface brightness, weak concentration.

 

17.5" (12/16/95): very unusual galaxy, appears as a very faint, very large glow surrounding a 1' high surface brightness core that increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  The irregular halo is difficult to trace but extends to ~10' diameter with a number of superimposed stars including a striking 6' string of six mag 10.5-12.5 stars oriented NW-SE on the southwest side of the halo.  No arm structure was seen.  The core forms a small triangle with two similar superimposed mag 11 stars 1.0' N and 2.0' NE.  Situated just 10.6° above the galactic plane and suffers from significant dust obscuration.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 144x the nucleus is prominent as a mag 12 "fuzzy" star.  At this power the outer halo disappears.

 

8" (3/21/20):  the small core/nucleus was very noticeable, as well as a very large, roundish outer halo ~15' diameter with a diaphanous appearance.  The halo seemed to fill in the gaps between the numerous surrounding stars.

 

8" (10/31/81 and 11/28/81): very faint, large, very diffuse outer halo, very small prominent 12th magnitude nucleus.  A line of three stars is superimposed.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 342 on 11 Aug 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He sketched it at 150x as well as 500x and noted, "with 500x it is quite a bright object, 1/2' dia and quite [?], mbM, not cometary.  Object 1' S of this star [shown on sketch] and following 3 or 4 seconds." His rough position and sketch (showing the superimposed linear strings of stars) is an excellent match.

 

William Denning independently discovered IC 342 on 19 Aug 1892 while comet hunting with his 10-inch reflector.  The discovery was announced in a short note, "New nebula", Astronomy and Astro-Physics, 12, 189 (1893).  He called it "rather faint, with nucleus about 12th magnitude, and very small, but it was sufficiently conspicuous to be discovered with a power of 40 only on my 10-inch reflector."  As Barnard never published his discovery or informed Dreyer, Denning was credited with the discovery in the IC.

 

Hubble and Seyfert announced "A Spiral Nebula of Unusually Large Dimensions" (Harvard College Observatory Bulletin #899, pp.16-17) with a diameter of 20' on photographs and they compared it to M33 and M101.

 

Hubble and Humason (1934), first recognized this object as a spiral galaxy and suggested it was possibly a Local Group member (heavily reddened) based on its recessional velocity, though it was later shown to be too distant.  IC 342 is one of the brightest members of the IC 342/Maffei Group that includes NGC 1560, NGC 1569 and highly obscured Maffei I and 2.

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IC 343 = ESO 548-066 = MCG -03-10-029 = LGG 100-003 = PGC 13495

03 40 07.1 -18 26 37; Eri

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 118°

 

17.5" (12/11/99): faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20".  Situated between two mag 13 stars 1.6' E and 2.0' SW of center.  Located 8' N of NGC 1407 in a group of 8 NGC galaxies.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 343 = LM(S) 160 on 14 Oct 1887 and noted "lE 90°, dif." with a diameter of 0.3'.  His micrometric position in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" (#160) matches ESO 548-066.

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IC 344 = MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568

03 41 29.5 -04 39 58; Eri

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 42°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, 30" diameter, diffuse, low even surface brightness.  Located 7' WNW of NGC 1417.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): first of three on a line with NGC 1417 and NGC 1418.  Extremely faint, round, very diffuse.  Detectable with averted vision only 20% of time.  Located 7.3' WNW of NGC 1417.

 

John Herschel discovered IC 344 = h305 = LM(S) 163 = Sw. 9-13 on 17 Oct 1827 and simply recorded "the first of 3 [with H. II-455 and H. II-456]".  His position matches MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568, although he assumed this nebula was identical with his father's H. III-569 = NGC 1397. As a result both the GC (756) and NGC (1397) misidentify h305 as H. III-569.  h305 (later IC 344) did not receive a separate NGC designation and this is JH's only discovery that has an IC designation.  This galaxy was also observed at Birr Castle, though also missed on several occasions.

 

Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 23 Dec 1889 and reported Sw. 9-13 as "eeF; pL; R; passed in line with 1417-18; cometary; unable to refind it; seeing good.  Failed also at Harvard College Observatory [during a visit]."  Swift published a note in AN 126, 225 that "in description of nebula no. 13 for "passed" read "1st of 3".  Calling attention to apparently so trivial a matter may seen unimportant, but it has more significance than at first sight appears, as I strongly suspect it to have been a comet, as at two subsequent examinations it could not be found.  It was in in line with NGC 1417 and 1418 and all three were seen simultaneously."  Swift gave an even more detailed review of this object in Astronomy and Astro-Physics (formerly Popular Astronomy, 11 (1892), so he clearly put a lot of effort and time on it.  Frank Muller also found IC 344 in late 1887 while measuring positions for NGC 1417 and 1418.  He described it as "round, diffuse" and gave a diameter of 1.0'.  Dreyer credited both Herschel (h305) and Swift in the IC.  Sherburne Burnham measured IC 344 (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) and correctly sorted out the confusion with JH's observation.

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IC 345 = ESO 548-074 = MCG -03-10-032 = PGC 13552

03 41 09.1 -18 18 51; Eri

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 37°

 

24" (1/1/19): at 260x; faint, very small, round, 18" diameter, compact appearance.  Located 21' NE of NGC 1407 (brightest member of a group).  IC 346 lies 13.5' ENE.

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 345 = LM(S) 168 on 22 Oct 1887.  The discovery was listed as #168 in the Leander-McCormick Observatory catalogue of Southern Nebulae (1893). His micrometric measurements (3 observations) matches MCG -03-10-032.

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IC 346 = ESO 548-078 = MCG -03-10-035 = PGC 13575

03 41 44.7 -18 16 01; Eri

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 69°

 

24" (1/1/19): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, contains a very small brighter nucleus surrounded by a 30" core and a very low surface brightness halo that was ill defined, but up to 1' in diameter.  IC 345 lies 9' WSW.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 346 = LM(S) 171 = Sw. XI-60 on 21 Oct 1887 at the Leander McCormick Observatory. His position matches ESO 548-078 and he commented "elongated in PA 80° (WSW-ENE), 1.0'x0.8', mag 15.5, diff."  Swift found the ESO galaxy again and reported it as new (#60) in his 11th discovery list. But the IC position was based on Ormond Stone's reported observation on 21 Sep 1889 (#151) and there is nothing at his position.

 

Herbert Howe suggested Muller's object was identical to Sw. 11-60 and Dreyer made the following note in the IC 2: "The place and description should be 03 35 26, 108° 43.0', eF, pL, E 80°, dif (my mistake).  Is no doubt identical with Sw. XI 60; 03 35 13, 108° 39.8'."  Dreyer gave no explanation of how the mistake was made, but perhaps he had meant to use Muller's observation instead or he noticed that Swift's observation closely matched Muller's.  In any case, Dreyer's corrected position matches object #171 in the Leander-McCormick Southern Nebulae catalogue.  Harold Corwin suggests that Stone's erroneous position for #151 may be due to a misidentified offset star.

 

Both Malcolm Thomson and Wolfgang Steinicke conclude that IC 346 should be classed as nonexistent based on the original IC data, leaving ESO 548-078 without an IC designation.  See Courtney Seligman's analysis for more on this confusing situation.

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IC 347 = MCG -01-10-024 = PGC 13622

03 42 32.6 -04 17 55; Eri

V = 12.7;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 40°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 45" diameter, sharply concentrated with a bright small core that increases to the center.  A mag 9.8 star is 5' SE.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): fairly faint, small, almost round, stellar nucleus.  Surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy.  Located 26' N of NGC 1418 in the NGC 1417 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 347 = Sw. 9-14 on 25 Dec 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; stellar."

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IC 348 = IC 1985 = Cr 41 = OCL-409 = vdB 19 = LBN 758 = Ced 20

03 44 36 +32 10; Per

V = 7.3;  Size 10'x10'

 

17.5" (12/16/95): IC 348 is an unusual object consisting of a scattered group of stars with associated nebulosity (vdB 19) situated near a large dark cloud virtually devoid of stars.  The cluster consists of 15 stars of varying magnitudes in a 6' group and is located 5'-10' S of Omicron = 38 Persei (V = 3.8).  The brightest star in the group is mag 8.4 SAO 56680, which has two nearby companions and the group is clearly encased in a fairly bright reflection nebula, ~3' diameter.  The star at the southwest end of the cluster is a nice close evenly matched double (STF 437 = 9.8/10 at 11").  The immediate 50' low power field to the south is strangely devoid of almost all stars! (Barnard 3 and 4).  Omicron also has a halo but this appears to be scattered light.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 348 = Sf. 70 on 1 Dec 1866 and recorded "vL, pB, very gradually brighter middle."  He added the footnote "a loose cluster with nebula" and his position is accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered the nebulosity near Omicron Persei (though not a cluster) on a plate taken 6 Dec 1893 at Lick Observatory and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1985.  William Herschel recorded the nearby bright star Omicron Per on 25 Jan 1789 (sweep 905), but failed to note IC 348.

 

The Lynga position for the scattered cluster is about 8' too far north and this error is repeated in the Sky Catalogue 2000.

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IC 349 = vdB 22 = Ced 19i = Barnard's Nebula

03 46 20.1 +23 56 23; Tau

Size 0.5'

 

48" (10/31/13):  IC 349 is a reflection knot just 36" SSE of Merope.  We used 813x and carefully placed Merope barely outside the north edge of the field.  The orientation was easy to judge using two 15th magnitude stars 1.8' S and 1.8' SSW of Merope and the elongated glow fell between the diffraction spikes.  Despite the glare from Merope making the observation much more difficult, I was surprised this small reflection nebula was fairly bright and elongated (roughly pointing south from Merope) with a straighter western edge, perhaps 20"x10" in size.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 349, a fan-shaped knot of nebulosity just 0.6' SSE of Merope, visually on 14 Nov 1890 using the Lick 36" refractor.  It was announced in a discovery note in AN 3018.  "On Nov. 14 while examining the cluster, I discovered a new and comparatively bright round cometary nebula close south and following Merope, every precaution was taken to prove that it was not a ghost of Merope by examining the other stars of the group under the same conditions.  I have since seen it several times and on Dec. 8th I could see it with some difficulty in the 12-inch by occulting Merope with a wire in the eyepiece.  With the great telescope the nebula can be seen fairly well with Merope in the field and is conspicuous when the star is placed just outside the north edge of the field.  It is about 30" in diameter, of the 13th mag, gradually brighter in the middle, and very cometary in appearance.  It was examined with powers of 300, 520 and 1500, with all of which it was comparatively easy."

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IC 350 = MCG -02-10-010 = PGC 13731

03 44 36.6 -11 48 03; Eri

Size 1.0'x0.8';  PA = 175°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; pretty faint, round, diffuse, low even surface brightness (no core or zones), 40" diameter.  View affected by mag 9.8 HD 23433, which is only 2.2' ENE.  Located 29' NW of mag 4.4 Pi Eridani.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 350 = J. 1-119 on 14 Oct 1891 and recorded "faint, round, 30" diameter, very diffuse."  His position is accurate.

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IC 351 = PK 159-15.1 = PN G159.0-15.1

03 47 33.0 +35 02 49; Per

V = 11.9;  Size 8"x6";  PA = 10°

 

17.5" (3/1/03): swept up at 100x as a fuzzy mag 12 "star".  Nice view at 380x, which reveals a moderate surface brightness 7" disk.  Fairly evenly illuminated but the halo has a slightly irregular surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is 20" WNW of center with a slightly fainter star further north.  Located 3.4' NW of mag 9.5 SAO 56707.  A mag 11 and 13 stars complete a trio to the SE.

 

17.5" (1/8/00): picked up at 100x as an out of focus mag 11 "star".  At 220x, this high surface brightness PN was clearly nonstellar and slightly oval with a hint of a sparkle (central star) at the center.  At 500x, appeared as a small, well-defined disc, elongated 4:3 SW-NE with dimensions ~7"x5".  The quasi-stellar center was brighter with a small, fainter halo that seemed irregular.  A couple of faint stars are close west and north.  Located 3.5' NW of a distinctive trio of mag 10/11/13 stars.

 

8" (12/4/80): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE.  A wide trio of stars is about 3.5' SE consisting of mag 9 SAO 56707, a mag 10.5 star and a mag 12.5 star (separations of 32", 36" and 58").

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 351 on 5 Dec 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory, while examining the region near Comet Zona.  He estimated a diameter of 4.6" and a magnitude of 10.5-11.  Sherburne Burnham measured a diameter of 10".

 

Based on a Crossley photographs, Curtis (1918) described, "central star can be made out and is perhaps as bright as mag 14.  The nebula shows a minute elliptical disk, which is 8"x6" in PA 10° in a 5 minute exposure.  An elongated brighter patch is in the center."

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IC 352 = LEDA 176624

03 47 37.4 -08 43 55; Eri

Size 0.65'x0.4';  PA = 119°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; faint, fairly small, fairly diffuse, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 25" diameter.  Mag 9.7 HD 23797, a very unequal and uncataloged double star, is 3' S.  HJ 2209, a mag 11.3/13.3 pair at  15" separation, is 12' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 352 = J. 2-589 on 7 Dec 1893.  His position matches LEDA 176624, although HyperLeda doesn't associate this number with IC 352.

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IC 355 = MCG +03-10-010 = CGCG 465-010 = PGC 14052

03 53 46.3 +19 58 26; Tau

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 161°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; between faint and fairly faint, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, ~25"x15", low surface brightness.  No brighter stars within 12' of the galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 355 = J. 2-590 on 15 Dec 1892 and noted "vF, S, R, 30" diameter, diffuse."  He discovered it again on 15 Jan 1904 and included it as J. 1506 in his unpublished 4th list.

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IC 356 = Arp 213 = UGC 2953 = MCG +12-04-011 = PGC 14508

04 07 46.5 +69 48 45; Cam

V = 10.5;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90°

 

48" (2/18/12): bright, large, oval 3:2 E-W, 3.0'x2.0', large brighter core.  There appears to be a very slightly brighter streak extending from the core to the southwest.  Several stars are superimposed on the halo.  UGC 2955 is 9' SSE and PGC 166486 = 2MASX J04083779+6950160 lies 4.7' NE.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 E-W, 2.25'x1.5'.  Contains a large brighter core 30" diameter with a fairly faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is embedded in the NE portion of halo.  Located 3.5' S of mag 8.6 SAO 13024.  IC 356 is one of the brightest IC galaxies.

 

8" (11/28/81): very faint, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Located south of a mag 9 star.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 356 on 23 Aug 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  His simple eyepiece sketch clearly identifies the neighboring stars.  Barnard didn't publish his discovery until 1892 (AN 3097) in response to an independent discovery by William Denning on 7 Nov 1890 (Observatory, 15, 104 (1892)).  Barnard's article was titled "Two Probably Variable Nebulae".  In the article he mentions "from its brightness it is not possible that it has been so conspicuous for any great length of time, or it would surely have been found by Swift and others."

 

Both Barnard and Denning are credited in the IC.  Denning was a bit peeved about Barnard's late discovery note and wrote "Mr. Barnard claims to have discovered [IC 356] in August 1889 whereas I did not pick it up until Nov 1890.  While admitting this claim, I would venture to remark that anyone who makes a discovery ought to be prompt in announcing it, as a delay of several years is very likely to cause misconception and unnecessary trouble to others.  I think that in ordinary cases priority of announcement ought to be accepted as priority of discovery."  He also questioned Barnard's claim that the nebula had recent brightened, stating "I have picked up this object many times during the last two years  without noticing any change in it other than can be fully accounted for by differences  in atmospheric conditions."

 

But perhaps Barnard wasn't the first to discover this galaxy.  Swift claimed (Astro-Physics, Vol XI, 566) an earlier discovery before 1879 based on marking the object on his Burritt's star atlas, though he didn't record or remember any particulars, stating he thought his early discoveries were all known!

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IC 357 = UGC 2941 = MCG +04-10-016 = CGCG 487-016 = PGC 14384

04 03 44.0 +22 09 33; Tau

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175°

 

24" (2/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, contains a very small brighter core.  A mag 12 star lies 1.5' E and two additional stars form an isosceles triangle (sides 2', 2' and 3').  Located 14' WNW of 4.3-magnitude 37 Tauri.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 357 = Sf. 73 on 1 Jan 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  He reported "F, S, R, Nucl = 13.5m".

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IC 358 = UGC 2940 = MCG +03-11-006 = CGCG 466-009 = PGC 14382

04 03 42.9 +19 53 42; Tau

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 63°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 45"x12", very small brighter nucleus.  The extensions are even thinner, perhaps a width of 6" - 8".  A mag 13.6 star is off the SW end [50" from center].  Mag 8.7 HD 25540 lies 7' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 358 = J. 120 on 17 Feb 1892.

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IC 359 = UGC 2980 = MCG +05-10-009 = CGCG 508-008 = PGC 14653

04 12 28.4 +27 42 08; Tau

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x.  At 280x appears faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and nucleus.  A mag 15 star is just off the WSW edge [26" from center].  A mag 15.5 star is ~1.5' ~1' E (other nearby stars surround the galaxy on the DSS).

 

This number is incorrectly applied to the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc.

 

Lewis Swift first discovered IC 359 = Sw. 2-29 = Sw. 10-14 on 20 Aug 1885 and reported "vF; pL; R; little brighter in the middle."  His position is just 2.7' W (12 seconds of RA) of IC 359.  He added a long note: "Resembles a Comet.  Moonlight and clouds prevented verification until Sept. 6, when it could not be found.  Am certain of its place, and of its configuration with 4 stars.  Have examined the place three times and am certain of its absence.  Seeing on one occasion as good as when discovered."  He also stated in the introduction, "No. 19 [from list I] must therefore be struck out, and with great probability No. 29 of this Catalogue also."  As a result, Dreyer didn't assigned Sw. 2-29 an NGC designation.

 

Swift rediscovered this galaxy on 25 Dec 1891 and recorded "eeF; pL; R; Not no. 29 cat. 2.  That is still missing."  There is nothing at his position but UGC 2980 lies 1 minute of time west and despite his comment, Sw. 2-29 almost certainly applies to the same object.  This galaxy is not identified as IC 359 in MCG (+05-10-009) and IC 359 is misidentified as the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = DG 29 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, MOL, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc (private communication with Corwin on 10/3/94).  LBN 782 is 6.5 min of RA following Swift's position and according to Dave Riddle, is the tail of cometary nebula Ced 30 = Hubble 4 = Hubble's "nebulous star".

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IC 361 = Cr 48 = Mel 24 = OCL-393 = C 0414+581

04 18 51 +58 15 00; Cam

V = 11.7;  Size 6'

 

18" (11/26/03): very faint cloud of partially resolved stars, ~4' in diameter.  A number of fairly uniform mag 14-15 stars are just resolved over haze, though it's difficult to tally a total. A brighter 7' string of mag 11-12 stars oriented NW-SE passes along the north edge of the cluster.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 361 on 10 Oct 1890 with the 6 1/2" refractor at Lick Observatory.  He recorded in his logbook, "In 6 1/2 inch it is apparently a very faint nebula between two or three stars.  In 12-inch (175x) it is pL, excessively faint and seems to be an excessively faint cluster or extremely faint stars, with possibly some nebulosity - power too high."  His simple sketch shows the cluster on line with two 6th magnitude stars to the southwest and the identity is certain. Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

 

William Denning found it again on 11 Feb 1893 with his 10-inch reflector (see The Observatory, 41, 140).  On 14 Sep he logged, "Cluster large and faint.  It is really a nebula with minute stars strewn about it. With power 252 the nebulous matter vanishes, but power 40 shows it very conspicuously."  Denning was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 362 = MCG -02-11-031 = PGC 14782

04 16 42.4 -12 12 00; Eri

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  PA = 3°

 

24" (12/1/16): fairly faint to moderately bright, oval 3:2 N-S, 36"x24", brighter core, very small brighter nucleus with direct vision.  Lies ~2' N of a pair of a wide pair [40" separation] of mag 13 stars.

 

MCG -02-11-030 lies 12' S.  This galaxy appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW SE, 30"x18", small bright nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.3' ESE of center and mag 9.4 HD 27112 is 3' SW.  This galaxy has an identical redshift, so apparently is a physical companion.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 362 = J. 1-121 on 14 Oct 1891 and reported "pretty bright, round, 10" diameter".  His position is accurate.

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IC 363 = CGCG 392-019 = PGC 14847 = LEDA 2800936

04 18 55.4 +03 01 59; Tau

Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; similar to IC 364, which lies 9.5' NNE. Nearly fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Situated 3.6' SW of a mag 10.1 star [unequal pair].

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 363 on 17 Sep 1890 while measuring double stars with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory.  His micrometric offset from a mag 10 star an exact match with this faint galaxy.

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IC 364 = CGCG 392-020 = PGC 14854

04 19 06.7 +03 11 20; Tau

Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 72°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; between faint and fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 16 star is 40" W.  IC 365 is 9.5' N and IC 363 is 9.5' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 364 = J. 2-591 on 6 Jan 1894.  His position is accurate.

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IC 365 = MCG +01-11-017 = CGCG 392-021 = PGC 14860

04 19 14.1 +03 20 54; Tau

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  PA = 33°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 35"x25", well concentrated with a small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  IC 364 is 9.5' S and IC 363 is 19' S (collinear).  A 24" pair of mag 9/10 star is 6' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 365 = J. 2-592 on 12 Jan 1894.

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IC 366 = CGCG 393-002 = PGC 14887

04 19 41.5 +02 21 35; Tau

Size 0.35'x0.2';  PA = 20°

 

24" (12/28/16): at 282x; faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  Closest galaxy to NGC 1550 in a large group at z = .012.

 

24" (12/22/14): faint, small, round, 12" diameter.  Located 3.1' SSE of much brighter NGC 1550.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 366 on 6 Oct 1890 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory.  It was found near NGC 1550 (discovered by d'Arrest) and Burnham noted "That found by d'Arrest [NGC 1550] is at least six or eight times brighter than the other.  There is a faint star, about 13m, between the two."  His micrometric offset from NGC 1550 is very accurate.

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IC 367 = MCG -02-12-001 = PGC 14917

04 20 41.0 -14 46 52; Eri

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 140°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 45"x15", slightly brighter along the spine of the central part of the major axis.  Located 16' SE of mag 7.8 HD 27499.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 367 = J. 1-122 on 7 Dec 1891 and recorded "pB, pL, diffuse."  His position matches MCG -02-12-001 = PGC 14917.

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IC 368 = MCG -02-12-009 = PGC 14994

04 22 42.7 -12 36 55; Eri

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 169°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25"-30" diameter, slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  A 9' chain of mag 11.5-14 stars oriented SW-NE extends across the east side at 200x (13mm Ethos).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 368 = J. 1-123 on 15 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 369 = MCG -02-12-010 = PGC 15020 = LEDA 146226

04 23 28.2 -11 47 24; Eri

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint and but not difficult, small, round, 25" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness with only a weak concentration. Forms a near equilateral triangle with two 13th mag stars 2.6' N and 3.3' ENE. Two 15th mag stars are 2' NE (between the brighter stars).  Possible outlying member of AGC 496, centered about 3° SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 369 = J. 1-124 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 370 = MCG -02-12-011 = PGC 15029

04 24 01.7 -09 23 41; Eri

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  PA = 140°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; faint, moderately large, roundish, 40"-45" diameter, diffuse glow of very low surface brightness, no core.  Located 15' SW of mag 7.7 HD 27984 and 0.9° NW of NGC 1577.

 

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 370 = J. 2-593 on 9 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 372 = LEDA 177340

04 30 04.2 -05 00 36; Eri

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  PA = 30°

 

24" (2/24/20): moderately faint, fairly small, small bright nucleus, very faint halo extended 3:2 or 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15".  IC 373 is 13' NE.  Member of the NGC 1600 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 372 = J. 2-594 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 177340 as IC 372.

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IC 373 = MCG -01-12-013 = PGC 15335

04 30 42.7 -04 52 13; Eri

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  PA = 108°

 

24" (2/24/20): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, sharp stellar nucleus.  Bracketed between a mag 11.8 star 2' N and a mag 10.6 star 2.5' S, with a mag 12.5 star 3' W.  Also two mag 8 stars are 7' E and 7' SE.  IC 372 is 13' SW.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Gradually increases to a brighter core.  In a line of 3 stars oriented N-S and ~2' from two mag 11 stars to the north and south.  Located 19' NW of NGC 1600 in a group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 373 = J. 2-595 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 374 = MCG +03-12-001 = CGCG 467-001 = PGC 15474

04 32 32.8 +16 38 03; Tau

Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 85°

 

17.5" (1/31/87): faint, extremely small, round, brighter core, possibly elongated ~E-W.  Visible with direct vision at 220x.  Located 3.2' NE of a mag 9 star.  Two stars mag 11/12 7' E and 9' ENE are collinear with the mag 9 star.  Located 48' W and 7' N of Aldebaran within the Hyades.  Appears almost stellar on the POSS.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 374 = Spitaler 4 on 28 Oct 1891 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 375 = LEDA 88275

04 31 03.1 -12 58 26; Eri

Size 0.8'x0.55';  PA = 59°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; faint, small, round, 20"-24" diameter. This member of AGC 496 is situated 8' SE of mag 8.3 HD 28664 on the west side of the galaxy cluster. IC 380 lies 10' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 375 = J. 1-125 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 88275 as IC 375.

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IC 376 = LEDA 952848

04 31 13.8 -12 26 00; Eri

Size 0.6'x0.55';  PA = 50°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; very faint, small, round, 20" diameter, diffuse, low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with brighter IC 377 1.5' SE.

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; extremely faint, very small, round, 20", very low surface brightness. Initially, I only noticed brighter and larger IC 377, which is 1.5' SE, but with averted vision IC 376 was occasionally glimpsed clearly.  Member of AGC 496.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 376 = J. 1-126, along with IC 377, on 14 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.  PGC and HyperLEDA misidentify the larger galaxy to the southeast as PGC 376.

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IC 377 = MCG -02-12-031 = PGC 15366

04 31 16.5 -12 27 18; Eri

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  PA = 99°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; fairly faint, slightly elongated, 30" diameter, brighter core, slightly irregular surface brightness.  IC 376 is 1.5' NW, PGC 952400 is 4' ESE and IC 378 is 10' NNE.

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; faint, fairly small, round, very diffuse, low even surface brightness, ~30" diameter.  Forms a pair with IC 376 1.5' NW.  These member of AGC 496 are situated on the NW side of the galaxy cluster.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 377 = J. 1-127, along with IC 376, on 14 Oct 1891.  His position corresponds with MCG -02-12-031, although MCG labeled this galaxy as both  IC 376-77.  PGC uses the first designation IC 376, instead of IC 377, and that error has carried through to HyperLeda and other sources.  But IC 376 is a separate galaxy close northwest, correctly placed by Javelle.

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IC 378 = LEDA 954841

04 31 27.9 -12 17 59; Eri

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.45';  PA = 69°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; faint, small, 20" diameter, slightly elongated SW-NE in the direction of a mag 14.5 star at the SW edge.  A 12th mag star is 2' NW.  IC 377 is 10' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 378 = J. 1-128 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate, although HyperLeda and SIMBAD fail to identify LEDA 954841 as IC 378.

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IC 379 = MCG -01-12-021 = PGC 15428

04 31 50.9 -07 14 18; Eri

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  PA = 34°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint but easily visible, round, 30"-35" diameter, low surface brightness, small weak brightening at the center.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 379 = J. 2-596 on 9 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 380 = MCG -02-12-034 = PGC 15398

04 31 41.3 -12 55 37; Eri

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 75°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; very faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness. Collinear with two equal 10th mag stars 2.4' and 4.2' NE. Probable member of AGC 496.  IC 375 lies 10' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 380 = J. 1-129 on 13 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 381 = NGC 1530A = UGC 3130 = MCG +13-04-007 = CGCG 347-006 = PGC 15917

04 44 28.5 +75 38 24; Cam

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/1/03): picked up at 100x as a moderately large, low surface brightness galaxy.  Brightens somewhat towards the center.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the edge of the halo.  At 220x, the star is at the north edge and the galaxy is elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', although the edge of the halo is difficult to define.

 

William Denning discovered IC 381 on 26 Aug 1889 while comet-seeking at 32x with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector in England.  At first he thought it might be identical to NGC 1530, but suspected it was new due to the discrepancy in position. The following year he accidentally ran across NGC 1530 and was certain his find was new.  He commented "with a power of 145 it is pretty faint, rather small, and there is a star of the 12th mag. on its N.W. border.  Two or three other extremely minute stars closely outlie the object, but they are near the limits of my aperture."  IC 381 was called "NGC 1530A" by Philip Keenan's in a table of new nebulae found on Yerkes plates and published in 1935 and deVaucouleurs used this designation in his 1964 Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies.

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IC 382 = MCG -02-12-049 = PGC 15691

04 37 55.5 -09 31 10; Eri

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0°

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, gradually increases to small bright core.  A 10' string of stars extends towards the NW.  Appears brighter and larger than NGC 1632 30' ENE!  Misidentified in the RNGC as NGC 1632.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 382 = J. 2-587 on 6 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 Henry Bros. refractor at Nice, France.  His position is accurate.  RNGC and NGC 2000.0 incorrectly equates IC 382 with NGC 1632.  See NGC 1632.

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IC 383 = LEDA 1371560

04 38 58.0 +09 53 33; Tau

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; faint, very small, round, 12" to 15" diameter maximum.  Even surface brightness glow with a well defined halo. A mag 12.5 star [3.5" uneven double] is 50" E of center.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 383 = J. 2-598 on 15 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate, although HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 1371560 as IC 383.

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IC 384 = LEDA 2816418

04 39 18.3 -07 50 21; Eri

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.45'

 

24" (12/17/22): at 327x and 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, sharply defined periphery, good surface brightness. Collinear with a mag 12.6 star 0.5' NNW and a mag 15.2 star 0.8' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 384 = J. 2-599 on 13 Dec 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 385 = PGC 15746

04 39 31.5 -07 05 51; Eri

Size 1.1'x0.5';  PA = 107°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, ~0.8'x0.4', bright core, diffuse halo. A mag 10 star is 3.7' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 385 = J. 2-600 on 9 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 386 = NGC 1632 = PGC 15769

04 39 58.5 -09 27 23; Eri

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 40°

 

17.5" (1/23/93): very faint, small, round, weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Located 3.1' SSW of a mag 10.5 star.  IC 382 lies 30' WSW.  Misidentified in the RNGC as IC 382.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 386 = J. 2-601 on 6 Feb 1893.  His position corresponds with PGC 15769.  This galaxy is probably NGC 1632, discovered by Frank Muller in 1886.  Muller's position is 0.8 minutes too far east, a common error in the Leander McCormick positions.  RNGC and NGC 2000.0 identify IC 382 as NGC 1632. Although IC 382 is brighter than IC 386, it is 4' off in declination and so less likely to be Muller's object.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 387 = MCG -01-12-044 = LGG 118-002 = PGC 15831

04 41 44.2 -07 05 10; Eri

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 81°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, moderately large, oval 4:3 or 3:2, ~1' diameter, brighter core, very diffuse outer halo. IC 390 lies 9' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 387 = J. 2-602 on 9 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 388 = LEDA 1021186

04 41 54.3  -07 18 23; Eri

Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Two mag 15.1 and 14.6 stars are less than 30" SW and 25" SE. A slightly fainter companion just 30" W wasn't noticed in poor seeing and low elevation (observed far west of the meridian). Forms a very close pair with IC 389 1.4' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 388 = J. 1-130 on 28 Jan 1892.  There are two very small galaxies just south of his position and his description coupld apply to either or both (as well as nearby faint stars).  HyperLeda doesn't identify either of these two galaxies as IC 388.

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IC 389 = MCG -01-12-045 = PGC 15840

04 41 59.6 -07 18 41; Eri

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.8'

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, roundish, 35" diameter, good surface brightness.  IC 388 lies 1.3' W, along with two faint stars that collinear with the galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 389 = J. 1-131 on 18 Jan 1892.

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IC 390 = MCG -01-12-046 = PGC 15844

04 42 03.9 -07 12 23; Eri

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  PA = 39°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; relatively faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, very weak concentration, 0.6'x0.2'.  IC 387 lies 9' NW and IC 388 is 6.5' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 390 = J. 1-132 on 28 Jan 1892 and reported "faint, round, 10" diameter."  His position is accurate.

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IC 391 = UGC 3190 = MCG +13-04-011 = CGCG 347-009 = PGC 16402

04 57 21.7 +78 11 25; Cam

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, fairly even surface brightness.  At 220x, embedded in the middle of a scattered group of stars, 1' diameter, nearly uniform surface brightness, possibly slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.9'.

 

William Denning discovered IC 391 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector from England.  He simply noted "F, S, R." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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IC 392 = UGC 3158 = MCG +01-13-001 = CGCG 420-002 = LGG 120-014 = PGC 15973

04 46 25.9 +03 30 22; Ori

V = 12.3;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170°

 

17.5" (2/11/96): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.0' diameter, even concentration to a very small brighter core.  Located 2.3' WNW of a mag 10 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 392 = J. 2-604 on 6 Jan 1894 with the 30-inch f/23 Henry Bros. refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position matches UGC 3158, although neither UGC nor MCG label their equivalent entries s IC 392.

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IC 393 = MCG -03-13-012 = PGC 16028

04 47 51.8 -15 31 31; Eri

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (2/23/22): fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter. A mag 14.6 star is close north [38" from center] and a mag 13.5 star is nearly collinear 1.2' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 393 = J. 1-333 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 395 = NGC 1671 = UGC 3178 = MCG +00-13-015 = Holm 80a = PGC 16095

04 49 34.1 +00 15 10; Ori

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 130°

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter.  At first appeared elongated but this illusion was caused by a mag 14.5 star at the following edge 25" from center.  Another mag 13.5-14 star is 1' W.  This galaxy may be NGC 1671 with a very poor position.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 395 = Sw. 9-15 on 20 Oct 1889 and reported "eF; vS; R; F * close f."  His position is 10 seconds west of UGC 3178. Howe measured an accurate position around 1900 and noted the faint star follows by 1.5 seconds of time.  It is possible NGC 1671 = Sw. 5-63 also refers to this galaxy, though this requires Swift's earlier position to be off by 45 seconds in RA and 1 degree in declination.  His description "pB * nr sp" applies, though, to IC 395.

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IC 396 = UGC 3203 = MCG +11-07-002 = CGCG 306-007 = CGCG 307-001 = PGC 16423

04 57 59.0 +68 19 23; Cam

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85°

 

17.5" (3/1/03): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2, 1.2'x0.8', small bright core is extended NNW-SSE.  This galaxy is fairly bright for the IC galaxy and was immediately swept up at 100x.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 396 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted a "small, indef, 12 1/2 mag, field marked by 3 or 4 pairs of stars.  The neb = 3/4' diameter, somewhat brighter in the middle [difficult to read]." His rough position is off by 16', but he made an accurate field sketch that clearly identifies this galaxy.  He later computed an accurate position using the coordinates for his offset star (HD 30530). William Denning independently discovered it just a month later (19 Oct 1890), describing "F, S, R, bright middle to a nucleus, F double star Sf."  Denning was credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never notified Dreyer.

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IC 398 = MCG -01-13-040 = PGC 16433

04 58 12.6 -07 46 49; Eri

Size 1.2'x0.4';  PA = 21°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 327x; fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 50" major axis, moderate surface brightness, slightly brighter elongated core.  A mag 13 .6 star is 50" N of center.  Located 17' WNW of NGC 1720.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 398 = LM(S) 198 on 13 Dec 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He described it as "Elongated 5° (SSW-NNE), diffuse" with a size of 1.0'x0.4'.

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IC 399 = Mrk 1090 = LGG 123-007 = PGC 16582

05 01 44.1 -04 17 19; Eri

V = 14.8;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

48" (11/2/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 18", fairly high surface brightness with a very small bright nucleus.  Located 2.3' SE of the HCG 31 quartet.  A mag 11.4 star lies 1.5' NW, between IC 399 and the quartet.

 

17.5" (2/8/97): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  This galaxy is located just 2.3' SE of NGC 1741 = HCG 31A and 2.5' SE of a mag 12 star on a line, although it was not listed as a group member.  Nevertheless, it is part of the same group, with a similar redshift as HCG 31A, 31B and 31C. These are also part of the larger NGC 1700 group (LGG 123).

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 399 = Spitaler 35 on 25 Feb 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  The MCG and NGC 2000 incorrectly equate IC 399 with NGC 1741.  See Malcolm Thomson's IC identification notes.

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IC 401 = Mrk 1092 = MCG -02-13-040 = LGG 126-002 = PGC 16672

05 04 19.6 -10 04 36; Eri

Size 1.6'x0.6';  PA = 56°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, ~40"x18", sharply concentrated with a small bright nucleus and low surface brightness extensions (arms).  Situated at the midpoint of mag 9.7 HD 32646 4.4' S and a mag 11.6 star 4.2' N.

 

Arp 187 lies 13' SE.  It appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~25"x12", weak concentration.  Arp 187, a remnant merger, is a disrupted radio galaxy with radio jets and extremely faint narrow tidal tails to the north and south (not seen).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 401 = J. 2-605 on 9 Feb 1893 and noted "very faint, round, 20" diameter, very small nucleus."  His position matches PGC 16672.

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IC 402 = UGCA 99 = MCG -02-13-043 = LGG 126-004 = PGC 16742

05 06 14.8 -09 06 27; Eri

V = 13.7;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  PA = 146°

 

24" (12/20/17): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~30" diameter.  A very faint star (mag ~15.5) is at the southwest edge. The halo fades into the background, so the size and shape were difficult to determine.  Based on the catalogued magnitude (V = 13.7), this galaxy was fainter than expected.  Located 14' ENE of NGC 1779.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 402 = LM(S) 212 on 12 Dec 1887.  He recorded "irregularly round, diffuse", with an estimated magnitude of 15.5 and diameter 1.5'.  His recomputed RA using his offset star matches UGCA 99, although the declination is off by ~1.5'.  Still, there are no other nearby objects, so the identification is nearly certain.

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IC 404 = CGCG 446-001 = PGC 16935

05 13 19.6 +09 45 18; Ori

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 135°

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x and 327x; faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter. A mag 14 star is just off the SE side [14" from center].

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 404 = J. 2-606 on 9 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 405 = Ced 42 = Sh 2-229 = LBN 795 = vdB 34 = Flaming Star Nebula

05 16 12 +34 16; Aur

Size 30'x19'

 

18" (1/20/07): the Flaming Star Nebula was barely visible without filter as a very low surface brightness hazy region mainly to the north of the mag 6 "runaway star" AE Aurigae.  The H-beta filter somewhat increases the contrast of the nebulosity.  The haze is brightest in the region surrounding AE and extends mostly in a broad fan for 10'-15' to the north and northeast.

 

17.5" (2/8/86): the "Flaming Star" nebula is a very faint, large, diffuse nebulosity extending mainly north of AE Aurigae without filter.  Enhanced with an H-beta filter.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): very low surface brightness haze at 62x using an H-beta filter, though nebulosity seen to 15' diameter and extending generally to the north and northeast of AE Aurigae.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): nebulosity highly suspected on east side of AE Aurigae.

 

John Martin Schäeberle discovered IC 405 photographically on 21 Mar 1892 using the Willard lens strapped to the 6-inch Clark refractor at Lick Observatory.  An announcement ("A Large New Nebula in Auriga") and description was given in PASP, Vol 4, No. 22.  Max Wolf also photographed it on 25 Sep 1892 (AN 131 [3130], 159) and in 1903 reported this nebula "looks like a burning body from which several enormous curved flames seem to break out like gigantic prominences".  He urged his colleagues to aim their spectroscopes at this "flaming star" - hence the name "Flaming Star Nebula".

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IC 407 = MCG -03-14-013 = PGC 17056

05 17 42.6 -15 31 24; Lep

V = 13.5;  Size 1.9'x0.35';  PA = 165°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 ~N-S, 45"x15", fairly low surface brightness, broad concentration but no distinct core or nucleus.  Located 6.7' NNE of mag 8.6 HD 34528.

 

John Dreyer discovered IC 407 = J. 1-134 on 25 Jan 1875 as an assistant on Lawrence Parsons' 72-inch.  His description reads "cE 163.1° [NNW-SSE]. *10m Pos. 200.3°, Dist. 408.5".  The orientation and offset to the brighter star (HD 34528) are a perfect match with this galaxy.  But Dreyer assumed the observation refered to NGC 1832 (GC 1043), located 1.4° WSW, so he didn't assign a new NGC number.

 

Stephane Javelle found the galaxy again on 7 Dec 1891 and called it "faint, little elongated N-S."  Javelle measured an accurate position and Dreyer gave him discovery credit, not aware of his own prior discovery.

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IC 408 = IC 2121 = ESO 486-053 = PGC 17110

05 19 44.9 -25 03 52; Lep

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 160°

 

See observing notes for IC 2121.  This identification is uncertain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 408 = Sw. 8-38 on 2 Feb 1889, along with IC 411, while using the 12-inch Lick refractor during a visit to Barnard in California.  His description reads "vF; pS; E; 5' n of 8 1/2 mag star."  In a note added to his 8th list, Swift wrote, "During an almost momentary use of the 12 inch at Lick Observatory, I detected four nebulae in one field.  In response to my query if he could see them, Prof. Barnard replied that he could see six.  He gave me the places of two of mine nos. 38-9 [IC 408 and IC 411].  Arriving home too late and the weather being unfavorable, I was unable to get positions of the other two as I expected.  From their low altitude and the interference of the eletric street lights, it is doubtful if I shall ever be able to see them from here, and therefore I shall be obliged to depend on the kindness of Prof. Barnard for their places, when they shall again come into favorable position."  Barnard includes the positions and descriptions in his logbook, but there is no additional information.

 

There is nothing at Barnard's position for IC 411 (in list VIII and copied correctly into the IC).  Corwin suggests the observation may refer to a double star at 05 18 04.2  -25 10 16.  Its position is off by over 5', but there is a mag 7.5 mag star 5.5' SE.  I think a more likely possibility is IC 408 refers to IC 2121 (later discovered by Swift on 26 Dec 1897), which is nearly 2 minutes of RA further east and has a mag 7.0 star 4.8' SW.

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IC 409 = MCG +01-14-024 = CGCG 421-026 = PGC 17105

05 19 33.6 +03 19 06; Ori

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 25°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 450x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.  Contains a stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus offset at the SSW end.  Occasionally, a second extremely faint stellar nucleus was glimpsed close northeast.  The two nuclei are separated by only 7"!  Situated in a busy star field 7.5' SW of mag 9.9 HD 242763.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 409 = J. 2-607 on 12 Jan 1894 and recorded, "pretty bright, nearly round, the central condensation is possibly double."  His position matches  CGCG 421-026 = PGC 17105.

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IC 410 = Ced 43 = Sh 2-236 = LBN 807

05 22 36 +33 31; Aur

Size 40'x30'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x unfiltered; emission nebulosity was evident surrounding and beyond the borders of open cluster NGC 1893, but only a large patch to the northwest of the cluster stood out well.  A UHC filter transformed the nebula to a showpiece and it appeared bright, very large (~30' diameter), very irregular with a large darker patch to the west of the central portion of the cluster.  The brightest section of nebulosity was to the NW of the cluster (as noticed without a filter), though mag 9.0 HD 242908 (a hot 04-type star) at the NW tip of the cluster is at the east edge of this bright, 6' circular patch.  Somewhat fainter nebulosity enveloped the entire cluster but an extensive field of nebulosity continued south of the cluster for an additional 10'.  It was difficult to see a clean edge on the south and west side as the nebulosity seemed to gradually fade away, but the entire diameter was at least 25'.

 

The cometary "Tadpoles" nebulae Simeis 130 and 129, which contain recently minted stars, lie on the east end of the cluster.  The "head" of Simeis 130 was immediately picked up at 200x as a very small, fairly high surface brightness knot with at least one star involved.  At 260x and 375, two very close "stars" oriented WSW-ENE were embedded in the glow, with the ENE object quasi-stellar (would not focus to a sharp point) and perhaps a very tight pair. Although impressive on images, there was no sign of the wavy tail extending from the "head" towards the NE.  Mag 9.1 BD+33 1028, 3' E of Simeis 130, along with a 6' group of a half-dozen mag 10-11 stars, were visually detached to the NE of the main cluster.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): very faint nebulosity involved with open cluster NGC 1893.  The brightest portion is at the NW edge of cluster.  A dark "hole" is just south of this nebulosity.  More extensive nebulosity is suspected but difficult to confirm due to the general background haze of the cluster.  Enhanced with UHC and OIII filters.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): nebulosity is evident preceding the NW star of the triangle of stars surrounding the cluster.  Very faint but definite with a filter in poor transparency.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 410 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130, p159, he noted the plate revealed a group of stars and a large nebula surrounding the star BD +33°1023.  His position matches the brightest star (mag 9.0 HD 242908) in the nebula.  NGC 1893 refers only to the open cluster, which was discovered by John Herschel.

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IC 411 = ESO 486-056 = MCG -04-13-011 = PGC 17130

05 20 18.6 -25 19 28; Lep

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  PA = 129°

 

24" (2/13/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 35"x25".  The surface brightness is moderate and fairly even.  A number of brighter stars are in the field, particularly to the east.  Located 16' SE of mag 7.0 HD 34867.  IC 2121 lies 21' NNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 411 = Sw. 8-39 on 2 Feb 1889, along with IC 408, while using a 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory during a visit to E.E. Barnard.  His description reads "vF; pS; R." and the position (measured by Barnard) is within 45" of ESO 486-056.  See IC 408 for more on his observation at Lick.

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IC 412 = IC 2123 = UGC 3298 = MCG +01-14-034 = CGCG 421-041 = VV 225b = VV 630 = WBL 114-002 = PGC 17180

05 21 56.7 +03 29 11; Ori

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30°

 

48" (10/27/19): IC 412 and IC 413 form an interacting pair (VV 225) with the centers separated by 35" WNW-ESE.  A mag 12.3 star only 30" NE forms a small triangle with the two galaxies.  At low power (375x), IC 412 appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 25"x16", with a bright elongated core or bar.  We didn't try higher power to resolve the spiral arm extending north.

 

24" (1/12/13): both members of this interacting pair (VV 225) are fairly faint, small, roughly 20"-25" in size, and each contains small bright cores.  IC 412, the northwest component, is larger and more elongated , roughly 5:3 SW-NE, 25"x15".  IC 413 is just off the ESE side, 35" between centers. A mag 12.3 star is 30" ENE (at the north edge of IC 413).  The stretched spiral arm or tidal tail to the north was not seen. The pair is 14' WSW of the bright double 23 Ori = STF 696 (5.0/7.2 at 32").  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

Member of a group (WBL 114 = LGG 130) at a distance of ~180 million l.y. with UGC 3294, 34' WNW.  This spiral appeared moderately bright and large, contains a very diffuse, low surface brightness halo perhaps 1.3'x0.6' NW-SE with a small brighter core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  The outer halo changes appearance with averted vision (no sharp edge) based on what part catches my averted vision.  Situated 4' W of mag 6.5 HD 34959 and the glare affects the view -- best with star placed outside the field.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): this is the northwest member of an unusual close pair of interacting galaxies with IC 413 -- just 35" separation (in PA 115°) and both members appearing to extend from a mag 12 star (30" from centers to star)!  Both galaxies are faint, very small, slightly elongated, ~25"x15", with small brighter cores.  IC 412 is elongated SSW-NNE and 30" SW of the mag 12 star - with the NE end just west of the star.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.6 SAO 112679 and 14' WSW of the (32") mag 5/7 double 23 Orionis.  A third galaxy, IC 414, is in the field 8.5' S, forming the poor galaxy cluster WBL 114.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 412, along with IC 413, on 30 Oct 1888 while sweeping with the 12-inch telescope of Lick Observatory.  He noted "the nebulae are very small, roundish, mbM.  Close south of a small star."  His field sketch confirms the identification.  Sherburne Burnham, who discovered nearby IC 414, also observed and measured the pair at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II). Stephane Javelle independently found the pair on 12 Jan 1894 and Barnard and Javelle are both credited with the discovery in the IC 1.

 

But Barnard must have later sent his original discovery to Dreyer, who assigned it as IC 2123 using Barnard's notebook description from 1888.  There are similar cases where Barnard sent a discovery to Dreyer after it already had been assigned an IC desingation.  Dreyer apparently missed the nearly identical positions.

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IC 413 = IC 2124 = UGC 3299 = MCG +01-14-035 = CGCG 421-042 = VV 225a = VV 630 = WBL 114-003 = PGC 17181

05 21 58.9 +03 28 56; Ori

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 135°

 

48" (10/27/19): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, very slightly elongated, 24"x20", sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  A mag 12.3 star is only 0.4' N of center.  Forms an interacting pair with IC 412 just 0.6' NW.

 

24" (1/12/13): this is the southeast component of the close interacting pair VV 225.  At 375x it appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~22"x17", sharply concentrated with a very small, high surface brightness nucleus.  A mag 12.3 star is just 25" N of center and a mag 16.2 star is 46" SSW. IC 412 is just 35" NW and roughly similar in appearance.  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): the southeast member of an unusual interacting pair (tidal tails on DSS image) of similar galaxies with IC 412 just 35" NW and both galaxies straddle a mag 12 star!  IC 413 appears similar to IC 412 - ~25"x15", slightly elongated NW-SE with a small brighter core.  The northwest tip of the galaxy is virtually in contact with the mag 12 star.

 

See notes for IC 412 = IC 2123.

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IC 414 = MCG +01-14-033 = CGCG 421-040 = WBL 114-001 = PGC 17179

05 21 55.0 +03 20 31; Ori

Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 135°

 

24" (2/5/13): faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Located 8.5' S of the interacting pair VV 225 = IC 412/413.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Located 9' S of the IC 412/413 pair and 2' NW of mag 9.4 SAO 112675.

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered IC 414 on 8 Nov 1891 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory while sweeping for IC 412 and 413.  The latter pair was discovered earlier by Barnard using the 12-inch at Lick.

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IC 415 = LEDA 2816473

05 21 21.6 -15 32 34; Lep

Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 155°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; fairly faint, small, round, moderately high surface brightness, easily visible continuously.  A mag 9.2 star (HD 35126) is 10' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 415 = J. 1-135 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate although HyperLeda and SIMBAD don't recognize LEDA 2816473 as IC 415.

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IC 416 = MCG -03-14-014 = PGC 17229

05 23 56.4 -17 15 37; Lep

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 68°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint but easy, elongated ~5:3 WSW-ENE, 0.5'x0.3', fairly low and even brightness.  Located 19' SSW of mag 5.65 HD 35505.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 416 = J. 2-610 on 18 Feb 1893 and recorded, "faint, poorly defined, little elongated, gradually condensed."  His position matches MCG -03-14-014 = PGC 17229.

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IC 417 = LBN 804 = Sh 2-234 = Ced 46

05 28 06 +34 26; Aur

Size 13'x10'

 

18" (1/20/07): large, irregular faint haze, ~8'-9' diameter.  Involved with open cluster Stock 8 (35-40 stars at 115x) in the field of 5.2-magnitude Phi Aurigae.  Mild contrast gain with a UHC filter.  NGC 1931 lies 45' ESE and NGC 1907 is 53' N.

 

17.5" (2/9/02): this large HII region encases the open cluster Stock 8 and is situated ~6' SE of 5th magnitude Phi Aurigae.  At 140x, the cluster consists of 40-50 stars including two mag 10 (the brightest is the wide double STF 707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18") and numerous mag 12-14 stars.  With a UHC filter (or OIII filter at 100x), the cluster is encased in a moderately bright glow, ~8'x5'.  The nebulosity is brightest in a triangular wedge, tapering towards the south with the two mag 10 stars oriented N-S (2' separation) along the western boundary.  The glow is irregular but has a fairly sharp border along the western edge.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint nebulosity involved with three stars mag 9-11 including STF 707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18".  The brightest portion is located 8' SE of Phi Aurigae (V = 5.1).  Embedded in the open cluster Stock 8.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 417 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130 (131), p159, he noted a "vast nebula envelopes the star cluster" and his position is within the cluster.

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IC 418 = PK 215-24.1 = PN G215.2-24.2 = HD 35914 = Spirograph Nebula = Raspberry Nebula

05 27 28.2 -12 41 50; Lep

V = 9.0;  Size 14"x11"

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; the bright central star was clearly surrounded by a sharply defined small ring with a dark rose color.  Switching to 260x, the color was more evident and saturated.

 

48" (2/18/12): at 488x, the sharply defined, vivid raspberry annulus appeared relatively thin and extended NNW-SSE, ~14"x12".  The high contrast central dark hole was striking surrounding the bright central star.  Surrounding the annulus is a faint outer halo, increasing the size to roughly 20".

 

48" (4/2/11): truly impressive view at 375x and 488x, which revealed a very high surface brightness, slightly elongated halo, ~14"x12", surrounding the very bright central star.  I was surprised to see the planetary was clearly annular with a very bright, irregular rim that varied slightly in thickness and a fairly high contrast darker hole surrounding the central star.  The ring's outer rim was a shocking, deep raspberry color.  The color was more intense at 375x and slightly more saturated along one-half of the annulus.

 

18" (1/26/09): striking view at 175x with the mag 10.5 central star blazing within a 10" disc with a crisply defined halo.  Excellent contrast gain using an H-beta filter with the central star nearly lost with the high surface brightness disc.  There appeared to be a very faint, thin envelope surrounding the main 10" disc extending a few arc seconds.  At 285x, the planetary is slightly oval NNW-SSE with subtle variations in surface brightness; slightly weaker around the central star and slightly brighter along portions of the rim.

 

18" (1/15/07): at 115x, the bright mag 10.5 central star is surrounded by a small 10" disc with a noticeable raspberry tint.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): at 100x, the bright 10.5 magnitude central star was centered in a 10" round halo with a definite rosy or raspberry tint at the outer edge of the halo, though the effect is fairly subtle.  Using an H-beta filter, the central star was strongly dimmed but the halo was significantly enhanced, dramatically changing the view of this planetary.  At 380x, no color was visible but the halo was a bit asymmetrical with a "softer" edge and possible double shell structure.  The center was very slightly darker around the central star.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 82x the mag 10.5 central star was enveloped in a very small round halo which appeared to have a slight reddish tinge at its edge.  This is a low-excitation PN and using a H-beta filter, the halo brightened and the central star faded, leaving a more noticeable disc.  At 220x, the prominent central star was surrounded by a well-defined 10" halo that partially "blinked" on and off switching from averted to direct vision.  At 280x, the small halo was possibly surrounded by an extremely faint envelope, but this could not be confirmed.  380x and 500x presented a superb view of the inner disc which appeared weakly annular.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): unusually bright mag 10.5 central star surrounded by a small high surface brightness halo.  At 220x, this planetary has a distinct "blinking" effect; staring at central star partially washes out the halo and with averted the halo is more dominant.  At 82x, an unusual rosy tinge is evident at the edge of the small halo, although the effect was fairly subdued.  The seeing was not steady enough for high power viewing of the outer shell.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): high surface brightness planetary, appears very bright at 481x.  Contains a bright "fuzzy" central star with a bright inner portion surrounded by a second fainter shell slightly elongated N-S.

 

13.1" (10/20/84): very bright, small, takes 350-410x well, bright central star, subtle shell structure.

 

8" (2/23/22): at 95x, the PN was nearly stellar, appearing as fuzzy mag 10 star. Increasing to 176x, a small well-defined disc surrounded the bright central star. At 229x with a careful look, the halo could just be resolved as annular. A perfect very small ring!

 

8" (2/5/81): nearly stellar at 100x, bright, appears as a mag 10 star with a small, faint bluish halo.

 

24" (1/23/22): Using the Televue Night Vision device (Gen3 White Phosphor) with a 6nm H-alpha filter at 286x: the rim was extremely bright and sharply defined, forming a striking annulus (slightly elongated) around the central star.  It reminding me of a small, high contrast view of M57, though the relative thickness of the rim was noticeably less.

 

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 418 on an objective-spectrum plate taken on 26 Mar 1891 (probably by Solon Bailey at Harvard's temporary station at Chosica, Peru or by William Pickering at Arequipa).  In a note dated 20 Jun 1891 and published in Astronomische Nachricten 128, p.11, Mina described the H-beta line as "unusually large as compared with the line whose wavelength is 5007 [OIII], the visual spectrum differs strikingly from that of other planetary nebulae."  Dreyer credited Pickering with the discovery in the IC.

 

W.W. Campbell, who credited Fleming with the discovery, made the first visual observation.  In 1891 he reported "it is a beautiful object as seen in the 36-inch telescope [Lick], consisting of a 9th magnitude star surrounded by a circular disc of blue light nearly 15" in diameter."

 

Based on Crossley photographs, Curtis (1918) reported, "central star of mag 19, surrounded by a bright somewhat elliptical ring 14"x11" in outside diameter, and about 12"x10" along its central line; pa 163°."  Walter Scott Houston made an observation in 1945 using a 10" reflector.

 

A star is plotted at this position on the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas because the BD catalogue included the central star.

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IC 420 = vdB 44

05 32 09.5 -04 31; Ori

Size 8'

 

18" (2/19/09): large, extremely faint reflection nebula surrounding mag 8.2 HD 36540.  Appears roughly 6' in diameter.  The surrounding field seems weakly luminous, but the glow surrounding the star is slightly more evident and extends roughly to mag 8.8 HD 36559 located 4.5' SE.  Located 45' W of the bright, scattered cluster NGC 1981 and 50' NW of the bright nebulous cluster NGC 1977 (north of M42).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 420 = HN 63 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate.  She noted "very faint nebulosity preceding and a little south of DM -4°1162.  Not confirmed by Plate 2414."  Edward Pickering announced the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 421 = UGCA 111 = MCG -01-15-001 = PGC 17407

05 32 08.5 -07 55 05; Ori

Size 3.2'x2.8';  PA = 80°

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, very large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~2' diameter, broad fairly weak concentration, so the surface brightness of this reddened galaxy is fairly low.  A wide double star (HJ 2271 = 10/11.5 at 19") is 6.4' NNW.  MCG -01-15-002 = VV 848 is 14' NE.  This disrupted galaxy appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 24"x18", contains a slightly brighter nucleus.  The tidal tail to the southwest was not seen.

 

17.5" (2/14/99): very faint, moderately large low surface brightness glow, ~2' diameter, very weak concentration, ill-defined halo fades into background.  A mag 13 star lies 2.3' ESE of center.  The galaxy is collinear with two wide brighter unequal pairs 6' NNW and 13' NNW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 421 = HN 66 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate of the M42 region.  She described a "faint nebulosity about 2' in diameter."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals (1890AnHar..18..113P) and he was credited with the discovery in the IC.  The published position is 10' too far south.  MCG failed to label -01-15-001 as IC 421.

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IC 422 = IC 2131 = MCG -03-15-001 = PGC 17409

05 32 18.6 -17 13 26; Lep

Size 0.95'x0.9'

 

24" (2/13/18): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus within a bright core.  A mag 13 star is 1' SE and mag 8.2 HD 36715 is 10' ESE.

 

LEDA 885859, situated just 3.4' SSE, was faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 18"x12", gradually increases to the center.  IC 422 and this galaxy have identical redshifts, so appear to form a physical pair.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 422 = J. 2-611 on 19 Feb 1893.  His position matches MCG -03-15-001 = PGC 17409.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 16 Oct 1896 and reported it as new (#80 in list XI).  His position is 4' too far SW, but when Dreyer catalogued it as IC 2131, the position was modified and falls at the west edge of IC 422.  Corwin notes that Swift apparently send Dreyer a better position, though the equivalence with IC 422 was not picked up.  So, IC 422 = IC 2131.

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IC 423 = LBN 913 = Ced 52

05 33 24 -00 37 00; Ori

Size 6'x4'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~5' diameter.  A couple of mag 12.5 stars are superimposed.  The edges fade into the background.  Photographically, this reflection nebula has an irregular ring shape.  Located 28' SE of mag 2.2 Delta Orionis (top star in Orion's Belt).  Nearby IC 424 to the NE was not noted, though observed on 2/19/09.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 423 = HN 58 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  She noted a "irregular oval ring having diameters 3' by 5'.  The position angle of the larger axis is about 165°." Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P) and is credited with the discovery in the IC.  Fleming examined photographs taken with the Bache telescope, an 8-inch f/5.5 doublet covering 10 degrees square, with a magnifying glass.

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IC 424

05 33 36 -00 25; Ori

Size 2.0'x1.0'

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, fairly small reflection nebula, ~2' in diameter.  Involving 4 or 5 stars with the two brightest at mag 13-14 forming a 35" pair oriented E-W.  Located 3' NE of mag 8.3 HD 36683 and 25' ESE of mag 2.2 Mintaka (Delta Orionis).  IC 423 (observed previously) is located 12' SSW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 424 = HN 56 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering announced the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "Nebula about 2' in diameter, brightest on the following side."

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IC 426 = LBN 921 = Ced 55j

05 36 31 -00 17 54; Ori

Size 5'x5'

 

18" (11/22/03): at 115x, surprisingly large reflection nebula just following a mag 8.6 star.  Appears ~7'x5' in diameter and oval E-W, though the outline is ragged.  There are a number of brighter stars nearby and the nebula is situated northeast of a distinctive N-S chain of 5 stars mag 8.6-10.  A distinct border runs E-W just following the mag 8.6 star.  An OIII filter killed the nebula, though I didn't try either a UHC or H-beta filter.  Located 1° NNE of Alnilam (middle star in Orion's belt).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 426 = HN 57, along with IC 423 and 424, on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering reported the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "faint nebula about 5' in diameter."

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IC 427

05 36 16 -06 38.1; Ori

 

24" (2/15/23): at 125x; nearly the whole field surrounding NGC 1999 seems weakly luminous, but a ~4' circle around a mag 10.6 star (involved with IC 427) is enhanced in comparison to the region between two mag 9.8 stars 7' and 10' to the SW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 427 = HN 67, along with IC 428, on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate on 27 Jun 1888.  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  She noted No. 15 as "A large patch of faint nebulosity, probably connected with No. 12 [NGC 1976]. [NGC] 1999 is near here, but the description given is unlike that of this object."

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IC 428 = Bernes 120

05 36 23 -06 27 01; Ori

 

18" (2/5/11): at 108x, this difficult reflection nebula appears as a very faint, hazy glow just west of mag 8 HD 37210, which detracts from viewing.  A mag 11 star appears to be involved.  Located 15' N of NGC 1999.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 428 = HN 64, along with IC 427, on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "perhaps this object should have been included with No. 15 [IC 427]."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 429 = PP 37 = V883 Ori

05 38 19.2 -07 02 24; Ori

 

18" (1/21/04): this cometary nebula appears as a very weak, small enhancement, ~10" diameter, about 2' NE of a wide pair of mag 13 stars located 13' NW of mag 4.8 49 Orionis.  At moments it appeared stellar or an extremely faint star is involved.  Located at the northwest tip of reflection nebula IC 430, which extends primarily to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 429 = J 2-612 on 6 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Dave Riddle noted the equivalence with Parsamian-Petrossian 37.

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IC 430 = Ced 55k

05 38 33.2 -07 05 07; Ori

Size 11'x11'

 

18" (1/21/04): very faint, fairly large low surface brightness glow to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis, ~4'.  Extends to a wide pair of mag 13 stars.  This reflection nebula needs to be reconfirmed as the bright star may have confused the observation.   See IC 429, which lies at the northwest tip of IC 430.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 430 = HN 65 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted a "nebulous band 3' wide extending 10' north preceding from DM -7° 1142."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P)."

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IC 431 = LBN 944 = vdB 50

05 40 13.5 -01 27 45; Ori

Size 5'x3'

 

24" (1/1/19): at 200x; fairly faint reflection nebula surrounding mag 7.8 HD 37674, round, perhaps 3' diameter. The glow was evident comparing to similar mag stars.  A brighter mag 7.1 star (HD 37660) is 3' NW and mag 10 stars lie to the S and SW.  IC 432, a brighter reflection nebula, is 11' ESE.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): very faint, hazy glow surrounding mag 7.7 SAO 132436 and 11' WNW of brighter IC 432, which encases a mag 7.5 star.  Located 30' NNW of Zeta Orionis!

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 431 = HN 61 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "nebulosity surrounding DM -1° 1001."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 432 = LBN 946 = vdB 51= Ced 55m

05 40 56.3 -01 30 26; Ori

Size 8'x4'

 

24" (1/1/19): at 200x; moderately bright, large, irregularly round, ~4' diameter, surrounding mag 7.2 HD 37776. A mag 12.6 star is ~40" W and a very faint star is at the east edge.  IC 431 is 11' WNW.

 

13.1" (1/11/86): very faint glow surrounding mag 7.5 SAO 132446, diffuse appearance.  Located 27' N of Zeta Orionis.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint, diffuse, 4' diameter, envelops a mag 8 star.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 432 = HN 60 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "well-marked nebulosity surrounding DM -1° 1005.  Unlike most nebulous stars, the nebulosity does not fade away towards the edges.  It looks rather like an irregular oval nebula on which a star was superimposed."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 433 = MCG -02-15-008 = PGC 17580

05 40 31.3 -11 39 56; Lep

V = 13.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, round, 30" diameter, small slightly brighter nucleus. Located 30' W of mag 7.0 HD 38072.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 433 = J. 2-613 on 18 Feb 1893.  His reduced position is about 1/2' too far north.

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IC 434 = Ced 55n = Sh 2-277 = LBN 953

05 41 00 -02 24; Ori

Size 60'x10'

 

24" (2/13/18): I was surprised to easily pick up the IC 434 strip extending south of Zeta Orionis unfiltered at 124x (21mm Nagler). Although the Horsehead wasn't prominently visible, I could also see the notch unfiltered!

 

13.1" (1/11/86): using an H-beta filter IC 434 appears a very faint, very large, very elongated strip of nebulosity running south of Zeta Orionis for almost one degree in a N-S direction.  There is a well-defined sharp edge along the east side while the west side fades off into the background.  Contains the famous dark nebula B33 = "Horsehead Nebula" as a dark "notch".  IC 434 extends beyond NGC 2023 off the east edge and the star density drops off significantly east of IC 434 whereas a number of faint stars are pepper the field to the west of IC 434.  This is one of the few emission nebulae that responds very well to a H-Beta filter.  Extremely difficult without filter.

 

24" (1/21/12): the view of the Horsehead through a 24" f/4.1 Starmaster using a Collins I3 image intensifier mated with a narrowband H-alpha filter at the Mauna Kea visitor center (9300') was absolutely stunning.  The outline stood out in extremely sharp relief like a photograph and the dark cloud was pitch black against the bright background.  I'm not sure of the magnification used but the field was 30' or less and the Horsehead was large enough to show exquisite detail in the outline.

 

17.5" (12/26/00 and 12/28/00): at 100x using an H-beta filter, the huge IC 434 strip was very prominent and easy to follow south from Zeta Orionis throughout the entire 50' field of view.  The boundary was razor-sharp along its eastern edge against a background sky darkened by the H-beta filter.  The Horsehead was very easy to view as a nearly black, semi-circular 4' indentation that protruded into the nebulosity.  With averted vision there was a short extension or knob on the north side.  This forms the snout of the horse and with concentration faint nebulosity is visible just below (east) of the snout.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): easily held with direct vision using the H-beta filter.  The head or snout protrudes to the north.

 

17.5" (9/14/85 and 10/12/85): the Horsehead Nebula appears as a jet black dark nebula using an H-beta filter at 84x superimposed against the fairly prominent emission nebula IC 434.  Appears as a semi-circular indentation or "bite" of 5' diameter along the sharply defined eastern edge of IC 434 "strip" which extends through field in a N-S orientation.  Significant contrast gain with and H-Beta filter which renders the background sky and B33 extremely dark.  Difficult to see the "snout" feature which protrudes to the north but it is detectable.  Mag 8.5 SAO 132451 lies 8' N.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): visible with direct vision with H-Beta filter and striking with averted.  The snout was suspected.  The contrast between B33 and the sky was high with the background jet black and sharply outlined against the easy glow of IC 434.  Best view with 24mm.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): IC 434 seen as a long thin strip at 62x + H-beta filter; Horsehead faintly visible as a dark indentatin on E edge near two faint stars.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 434 on Harvard College Observatory plates in 1883. Edward Pickering announced the discovery (along with a number of other Orion nebulae) in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  She also described the dark notch (later dubbed the "Horsehead") as "A large nebulosity extending nearly south the Zeta Orionis for about 60'.  More intense and well marked on the following side with a semicircular indentation 5' in diameter 30' south of Zeta. All good plates of this region show this object, and it has been used here as a test for some time." Dreyer didn't mention the "indentation" in the IC description.

 

Harold Corwin comments that "Some people have suggested that it was actually found by William Herschel.  This is not true; WH's comment (see Latusseck, J. Astron. Data 14, 4, 2008 where it is reprinted) "Wonderful black space included in Nebulosities" refers to NGC 2024, not to IC 434."

 

But Wolfgang notes that on 1 Feb 1786 (sweep 518), Herschel recorded a large region of nebulosity extending roughly 2° north-south, not far east of IC 434.  He noted "I am pretty sure the places of which these are the boundaries are all full of diffused milky nebulosity; but notwithstanding I used every means of ascertaining it by motion of the telescope, my range was neither far enough, nor sufficiently quick to put it beyond doubt.  Caroline assigned it the general (internal) discovery number 1321, which became H. V 35 (first of 4 different fields associated with that designation).  Wolfgang Steinicke feels it may apply to IC 434, though Herschel's RA is about 3 minutes too large, so this identification is very uncertain.

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IC 435 = Ced 55q

05 43 00.6 -02 18 45; Ori

Size 5'x3'

 

24" (1/1/19): at 200x; bright reflection nebula surrounding mag 8.3 38087, large, round, 3' to 4' diameter, moderately high surface brightness, seems brighter close to the star, though this may be due to glare.  Located 20' ESE of NGC 2023.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 88x with OIII filter (wrong filter to use) appears as a very faint and difficult circular nebulosity surrounding mag 8.3 SAO 132478.  Located 20' ESE of bright NGC 2023.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 435 = HN 59 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "Nebulosity surrounding DM -2°1350."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 437 = LEDA 90030

05 51 37.4 -12 33 54; Lep

Size 1.0'x0.4';  PA = 7°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, extended N-S, quite easy to pick up in the field.  Increasing to 375x; elongated 2:1 N-S, brighter core, a dim mag 16 star is at the south tip.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 437 = J. 2-614 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.  Identified as LEDA 90030 in both HyperLEDA and SIMBAD (no IC designation).

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IC 438 = UGCA 115 = ESO 555-009 = MCG -03-15-025 = LGG 134-003 = PGC 18047

05 53 00.1 -17 52 34; Lep

V = 12.0;  Size 2.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 55°

 

17.5" (3/8/97): fairly faint, moderately large, nearly 2' diameter.  Appears as a diffuse roundish glow with a very weak, broad concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is attached at the NE end, 1.0' from the center.  A 1' pair of mag 10 stars precedes by 3.5'.  Located 8' SSE of mag 8.6 SAO 150914.  Forms a pair with IC 2151 7.7' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 438 = Sw. 10-15 on 7 Jan 1891 and recorded "eeF; pS; E in meridian; wide D * nr preceding."  He found it again on 7 Oct 1897 and described Sw. 11-88 as "vF; pL; R; v wide D * near p[receding]."  Howe noted the equivalence in his survey of IC objects (Monthly Notices, Nov. 1900) and also discovered nearby IC 2151.

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IC 440 = UGC 3427 = MCG +13-05-021 = PGC 18807

06 19 13.3 +80 04 07; Cam

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 36°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, sharply concentrated with a fairly high surface brightness core ~25" diameter.  Very low surface brightness extensions were barely glimpsed extending SSW-NNE.  A mag 14.2 star is just off the southwest edge.  Located just off the line connecting mag 9.0 star (HD 41373) 6.8' SW and a mag 8.3 star (HD 42249) 9' NE.

 

UGC 3404, situated 14' WSW, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20"-24" diameter, gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  An extremely low surface brightness outer halo wasn't seen.  Located 14' WSW of IC 440.  UGC 3396 lies 11.6' WSW.  Several stars are nearby including a mag 10.7 star just 1.8' N.

 

UGC 3396, situated 26' WSW, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20"-24" diameter, gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 9.7 star is 2.8' N.

 

William Denning discovered IC 440 on 16 Nov 1890 while comet hunting in Camelopardus with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  He noted "vF, S" and his position matches UGC 3427.

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IC 441 = MCG -02-16-001 = PGC 18315

06 02 42.6 -12 29 57; Lep

Size 1.4'x1.1'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; very faint, moderately large, ill-defined glow, ~45", difficult to estimate size as fades into background. A dim mag 15 star is at the W edge and a mag 11 star is 2' NW.  Located 11' E of mag 8.9 HD 41015.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 441 = J. 2-615 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 442 = UGC 3470 = MCG +14-04-003 = CGCG 362-022 = CGCG 363-005 = PGC 19306

06 36 11.9 +82 58 06; Cam

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (1/25/22): at 228x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~3:2, ~45"x30" [N-S], brighter along the major axis, probably because of the unresolved double nuclei. Situated in a pretty rich star field.  The seeing was too soft to use high power to resolve the nuclei at only 8" separation.

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 442 was picked up at 228x (10mm ZAO) as a fairly faint, fairly small round glow, ~18" diameter.  Adding a 2x Powermate (452x), two extremely close nuclei [separated by 8"] were resolved within the halo!  The nucleus in the south-southwest part of the halo (PGC 2787456) was almost seen continuously in periods of fairly steady seeing, while the north-northeast nucleus (PGC 19306) was a bit more subtle.  Both were stellar or quasi-stellar and towards the outer edges of the halo.

 

William Denning discovered IC 442 on 9 Nov 1890 while comet seeking in Camelopardus with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  He noted "F, S, R, mbM"

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IC 443 = LBN 844 = Sh 2-248 = Ced 73 = Simeis 40 = SNR G189.1+03.0 = Jellyfish Nebula

06 16 54 +22 47; Gem

Size 50'

 

18" (2/23/06): easily visible at 73x and OIII filter.  The brightest portion is a 5' elongated strip that very gently curves WNW-ESE.  Faint haze extends out from this strip towards the south and west.  An extremely faint extension of the strip continues to the SE and curves towards an obtuse triangle of three stars, increasing the length of the edge of the shell to over 10'.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 64x and OIII filter, the most prominent section of this supernova remnant is a gently curving band of nebulosity oriented NW-SE, ~10'x3' with a well-defined edge along the eastern (bowed-out) boundary. A larger region of low surface brightness haze, ~20' in size, spreads out to the west of the northern end.  At the SE end, the band dims and seems to hook to the SW towards a small arrowhead of stars.  Located ~2.5 degrees SE of M35 and following mag 3.3 Eta Geminorum.

 

17.5" (2/13/88 and 1/20/90): at 82x with OIII filter this supernova remnant appears moderately bright, large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE.  Appears a bit larger and brighter at the NW end.  Much fainter nebulosity is close south off the west end and a couple of mag 10 stars are superimposed. Surprisingly easy to view with an OIII filter.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 62x with filter, appears as a very faint elongated strip of nebulosity, perhaps 10' in length.  Not visible without a filter.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 443, along with IC 444, on 25 Sep 1892 with a 2 1/4" lens.  In AN 3130 (1892), he recorded finding "[Two] Very extended and bright nebulous masses are visible there [near Mu and Eta Geminorum], which very roughly have their centers at approximately 6h 14m +24° [IC 444] and 6h 08m +22° [IC 443]."

 

E.E. Barnard independently discovered these two nebulae in 1894. He reported in "Astronomy and Astro-Physics", Vol 8, No. 3, "On this same plate [taken on 1 Feb 1894 with a 2h 10m exposure] is a faint narrow curved nebulosity [IC 443] in about, 1860.0, 6h 8m + 23° 0'.  It is nearly 1/2° long, extending north and south and convex to the east."

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IC 444 = LBN 840 = vdB 75 = Ced 74

06 19 22.5 +23 16 28; Gem

Size 8'x4'

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly easy, round reflection nebula surrounding mag 7.0 SAO 78225 (12 Gem), ~3' diameter.  Visible without filter in comparison with other nearby comparable stars.  This star forms the southern vertex of an equilateral triangle with mag 7 stars 12' N (SAO 78222 = 11 Gem) and a mag 7.5 star 13' NE.  The illuminating star is at the northwest edge of a large, scattered 15' triangular group of mag 9-13 stars (Cr 89?), with most of the stars forming the outline.

 

13.1" (1/11/86): at 79x (unfiltered), diffuse, hazy nebulosity surrounding a 7th mag star, moderately large.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 444, along with IC 443, on 25 Sep 1892 with a 2 1/4" lens.  In AN 3130 (1892), he recorded finding "[Two] Very large and bright nebulous masses are visible there [near Mu and Eta Geminorum], which very roughly have their centers at approximately 6h 14m +24° [IC 444] and 6h 08m +22° [IC 443]."

 

E.E. Barnard independently discovered these two nebulae on a plate two years later.  Barnard reported in "Astronomy and Astro-Physics", Vol 8, No. 3, "On another photograph taken Feb. 1, 1894, with 2h 10m exposure, the 9m.5 star Dm +23°1313 is found to be closely nebulous, a very small dense nebulosity gives it a fuzzy appearance.  The nebulosity is heaviest south and following."  Harold Corwin notes that Barnard misidentified the star -- it should be BD +23°1301 = 12 Geminorum.  Secondly, his reported postion gave the equinox as 1885.0, but it should be 1855.0 for the BD star, so his position -- which was used in the IC -- is poor.  Corwin also comments that although 12 Gem is often given for the position of IC 444, the reflection nebula is part of a much larger emission nebulosity (Sh 2-249) centered about 25' ESE.  Wolf claimed to record "very large and bright nebulous masses", so perhaps his image included Sh 2-249.

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IC 445 = UGC 3497 = MCG +11-09-001 = PGC 19328

06 37 21.3 +67 51 36; Cam

V = 13.4;  Size 0.85'x0.7';  PA = 19°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated 3.8' SSE of mag 9.1 HD 46146.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 445 = Sw. 8-42 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF, S, R, B * sf."  His position is off the northeast side of UGC 3497.  The bright star is northwest of the galaxy, not southeast.

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IC 446 = IC 2167 = LBN 898 = Ced 77

06 31 07 +10 27 18; Mon

Size 5'x4'

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint reflection nebula surrounds a mag 10-11 star. This bi-polar nebula is fairly large, about 2.5' diameter.  Appears to extend further (or is brighter) on the south side.  Bordered by three collinear mag 13 stars on the south side.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 446 = IC 2167, along with IC 2169, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He wrote in his notebook, "a 9 1/2 mag star with largish faint nebula, a little heavier following." 

 

He found it again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the 6" Willard lens and reported on it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Barnard mentioned that he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweeping over this region" as a "10 mag nebulous star about half a degree north preceding 2245."  Apparently Barnard directly sent his original visual discovery to Dreyer, hence the two IC designations (visual and photographic), IC 446 = IC 2167.  This object is a bi-polar reflection nebula. Listed in article on bi-polar nebulae by Ronald Stoyan in Deep Sky Observer #12.

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IC 447 = IC 2169 = LBN 903 = Ced 78 = vdB 76 = vdB 77 = vdB 78

06 31 12 +09 54; Mon

Size 25'x20'

 

24" (1/31/14): picked up unfiltered at 200x, though low contrast as the entire field is patchy in faint stars and affected by some dust.  Seems roughly 20'x10, elongated N-S and includes several bright stars (Cr 95) with mag 7.9 HD 46005 near the center (illuminating star), mag 8.9 HD 258853 near the south end, and a mag 9.3 star at or beyond the NW end.  The contrast is significantly improved at 125x using a NPB filter and the outline is better defined, particularly at the southern end.  Although the nebulosity is slightly brighter to the south of HD 46005, there are no high surface brightness sections.

 

18" (2/4/08): at 175x unfiltered, this is a huge, interesting reflection nebula, ~25'x18', elongated N-S with an irregular outline and subtle variations in brightness.  A number of mag 8-10 stars are superimposed, including mag 8 HD 46005 (illuminating star) which is part of a 10' N-S string of four brighter stars on the east side. Nearby reflection nebulae include NGC 2245 ~30' NE, IC 446 35' N and NGC 2247 40' NE (this group forms the association Monoceros R1).

 

IC 2169 is located two degrees due west of the Christmas Tree cluster and the whole region of bright and dark nebulosity is part of the same molecular cloud complex Mon OB1.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 447 = IC 2169, along with IC 446 = IC 2167, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "1 radius of 80x field [21'] south and 1 radius [21'] preceding the 7 1/2' m star [NGC 2245] is a large nebulosity, faint, that involves several 9 or 9 1/2 mag star.  Nearly 1/2° in size, irregular(?)".  His offset lands in the southern part of the nebula, though clearly he was referring the entire portion.  He picked it up again on 26 Feb 1889 and logged "22' S and 22' p. the neb NGC 2245 is a vL neby, with some bright stars in it.  It is extended N & S nearly, 15 x 12' +/- diam.  There are 3 or 4 9th and 10th mag stars in a curve seemingly connected with it."

 

Barnard found this reflection nebula again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the Willard 6" lens though and announced it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Barnard stated he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweep over this region, I found a very large, weak, diffused nebulosity some half a degree south of the nebula NGC 2245. This was mixed up with several considerable stars."  His earlier visual discovery was not published but apparently he sent it later to Dreyer, so it was catalogued again as IC 2169.

 

Barnard retracted his discovery of IC 447 in Lick Publications, Vol 11, incorrectly claiming it to be identical to NGC 2245.  Hubble included this object in his 1922 paper "A general study of diffuse galactic nebula" in Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory / Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 241, pp.1-38.

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IC 449 = UGC 3515 = MCG +12-07-014 = CGCG 330-012 = PGC 19554

06 45 41.1 +71 20 38; Cam

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 70°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated E-W, ~45"x35".  Contains a relatively large brighter core.  Situated 4.1' WSW of mag 8.4 HD 47725.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 449 = Sw. 8-43 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "pF, S, R, bM, bet 2 D st."  His position matches IC 449, so there's little doubt about the identification, though I'm surprised he didn't mention the nearby 8.5-magnitude star.

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IC 450 = UGC 3547 = Mrk 6 = MCG +12-07-018 = CGCG 330-017 = PGC 19756

06 52 12.3 +74 25 37; Cam

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 129°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; faint,  small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, sharp stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 451 4' NE.

 

William Denning discovered IC 450, along with IC 451, around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer as it was not published.  The IC positions for both galaxies are 6'-7' too far southeast.  Corrected positions were published in the 1937 paper "A study of faint northern galaxies" by Seyfert and Shapley (1937AnHar.105..219S).  This is a very faint pair to be discovered in a 10-inch scope, testifying to Denning's keen eyesight.

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IC 451 = UGC 3550 = MCG +12-07-019 = PGC 19775

06 52 52.0 +74 28 51; Cam

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 144°

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 450 4.2' SW.  Located 20' E of NGC 2258.

 

William Denning discovered IC 451, along with IC 450, around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer as it was not published.  The IC positions for both galaxies are 6'-7' too far southeast.  Corrected positions were published in the 1937 paper "A study of faint northern galaxies" by Seyfert and Shapley (1937AnHar.105..219S).

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IC 452 = NGC 2296 = MCG -03-18-003 = PGC 19643

06 48 39.1 -16 54 06; CMa

Size 1.9'x1.4';  PA = 145°

 

See observing notes for NGC 2296.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 452 = Big. 147, along with IC 453 = Big. 148 on 9 Mar 1890 while searching for NGC 2296.  Swift's discovery position for NGC 2296 was 0.7 minutes of RA too large, so Bigourdan assumed Big. 147 (later IC 452) was new.  Herbert Howe later measured an accurate RA for NGC 2296 in 1898 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) so, NGC 2296 = IC 452.  Bigourdan's position for Big. 148 (IC 453) points directly to a star, according to Corwin.

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IC 454 = UGC 3570 = MCG +02-18-002 = PGC 19725

06 51 06.3 +12 55 19; Gem

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140°

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  A star (mag 13.5-14?) is superimposed near the northwest end.  Contains a slightly brighter nucleus, which is close southeast of the star.  There may be one or two additional mag 15.5-16 star near the periphery.  Since the galaxy appears to extend from the brighter star it has a comet-like appearance.  Situated in a rich Milky Way star field.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 454 = Sw. 9-16 on 23 Jan 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "a faint nebula, elongated with 13 mag star attached to end N.p."  His rough RA (in his notebook) is about 24 seconds too large, but his small field sketch matches.  The discovery was probably not communicated to Dreyer as Barnard wasn't credited in the IC.

 

Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 27 Dec 1889 and simply noted "eeF; S; e diff."  Swift's RA is 9 seconds too large and he received credit in the IC.  Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 and noted, "One or two stars are involved in this nebula."

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IC 455 = UGC 3815 = MCG +14-04-033 = CGCG 362-044 = CGCG 363-030 = LGG 145-012 = PGC 21334

07 34 57.7 +85 32 14; Cep

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 82°

 

18" (8/2/11): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~30"x25", fairly sharply concentrated with a small bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Located 11' SSE of NGC 2300 in a group of far northern galaxies near +85° declination.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  With direct vision, a sharp stellar nucleus was intermittently visible.  Located 16' ESE of NGC 2276 and 11' SSE of NGC 2300.  This galaxy is the 5th closest to the celestial pole in the NGC or IC (2nd in the IC) and 3 of these 5 are visible in the same low power field!

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 455 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  While comet hunting in the north, Barnard found NGC 2276, 2300 and IC 455.  He was confused on his pointing direction this far north, but made a field sketch including nearby stars and labeled the nebulae A (NGC 2276), B (NGC 2300) and C (IC 455, outside the 150x field).  He noted "C is 10' S and 3' foll B.  A is 2' diameter, faint, very gradually little brighter middle."  The sketch clearly identifies the three galaxies.  William Denning independently discovered IC 455 less than a month later on 17 Oct 1890 with his 10-inch reflector.  Denning is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

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IC 456 = ESO 427-024 = MCG -05-17-002 = PGC 19993

07 00 17.5 -30 09 50; CMa

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 110°

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core.  Located just 1' SW of mag 9 SAO 197461 and 6' SE of mag 7.1 SAO 197448.  Also mag 8.7 SAO 197447 lies 7' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 456 = Sw. 10-16 on 19 Dec 1890 and recorded "vF; pS; R; B * close nf; B * with pB dist comp np."

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IC 457 = NGC 2330 = MCG +08-13-078 = CGCG 234-074 = WBL 133-001 = PGC 20272

07 09 28.4 +50 09 08; Lyn

V = 14.7;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x fairly faint, small, nearly round, 20" diameter, even surface brightness.  Located 2' SSW of NGC 2332.  A mag 15.1 star is between this galaxy and NGC 2332.  Note: This galaxy is identified as IC 457 in the CGCG and UGC.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 15 star is 1' NE.  Located 2' SW of NGC 2332.

 

Hermann Kobold found IC 457 on 4 May 1893, along with 8 galaxies besides NGC 2332 and 2340, with the 18-inch refractor at Strasbourg.  His position matches PGC 20272, which was discovered by Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle on 2 Jan 1851.  Although placed fairly accurately on a constructed diagram, no absolute positions were determined so Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's measurement.  Unfortunately, Bigourdan's position refers to a faint star so the NGC position for NGC 2330 is erroneous.  Assuming PGC 20272 is the galaxy Dreyer had in mind as NGC 2330 (Malcolm Thomson disagrees), then NGC 2330 = IC 457 = PGC 20272.  UGC and CGCG label this galaxy as IC 457 and don't use the NGC designation.  See RNGC Corrections #5 and Corwin's notes for much more on this complicated story!

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IC 458 = UGC 3713 = MCG +08-13-085 = WBL 133-004 = PGC 20306

07 10 34.3 +50 07 06; Lyn

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 175°

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 N-S, ~30"x20", small brighter core but no distinct nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the south edge [0.6' from center].

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration to center.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the south edge 0.6' from center.  In a small group with NGC 2340, IC 458, IC 461, IC 464, IC 465.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): very faint, very small, elongated 5:2 N-S, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is off the south end 36" from center.  In a field of four galaxies with NGC 2340 7' ENE, IC 464 5.0' ENE and IC 465 12' NE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered IC 458 = Sw. 8-44, along with IC 459, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851.  The 1861 publication didn't include any details of the Birr Castle discoveries so this nebula was not included in the GC or GC Supplement.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888, as well as Hermann Kobold on 15 Apr 1893 (all 3 are credited in the IC).  Kobold's position (used in the IC) matches UGC 3713.  The MCG misidentifies +08-13-089, instead of +08-13-085, as IC 458.

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IC 459 = CGCG 234-082 = PGC 20311

07 10 38.7 +50 10 38; Lyn

Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x: very faint, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", low surface brightness, can hold steadily once identified.  Located 5' W of NGC 2340 and 3.4' NW of mag 10 HD 233347 in the center of the galaxy cluster.  IC 460 lies 1.8' NE and IC 458 is 3.6' S.

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness, no concentration.  Located 5' due west of NGC 2340 in the core of the cluster and 3.6' N of IC 458.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered IC 459, along with IC 458, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851.  Hermann Kobold discovered it independently at Strasbourg on 2 Dec 1893 (both Rosse and Kobold are credited in the IC).

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IC 460 = MCG +08-13-089 = CGCG 234-084 = WBL 133-007 = PGC 20318

07 10 44.3 +50 12 09; Lyn

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5'

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, brighter center.  A mag 13.2 is at the southwest edge [18" from center] and a second mag 13 star is 0.8' NW. IC 460 is located 4.6' WNW of NGC 2340 in the core of the cluster.  IC 459 lies 1.8' SSW.

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint galaxy in the core of the NGC 2340 group.  Just visible with averted vision and concentration as a 10" knot just off the northeast side of a mag 13 star [only 18" separation].  This star forms a pair with another mag 13 star 44" NW.  Located 4.5' WNW of NGC 2340 and 1.8' NNE of IC 459.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 460 on 2 Dec 1893 with the 18" refractor at Strasbourg Observatory.  This galaxy was missed at Birr Castle when the cluster was observed in January 1851.

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IC 461 = MCG +08-13-088 = CGCG 234-083 = WBL 133-006 = PGC 20319

07 10 45.0 +50 04 53; Lyn

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 35°

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x; faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 0.4'x0.3', low even surface brightness.  A string of three mag 12-13 stars oriented SW-NE follows closely.  A mag 15.5 star is at the southeast edge of the galaxy.  Located 7' SW of NGC 2340 and 2.8' SE of IC 458.

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.3'x0.2'.  This small galaxy is just preceding a 1.5' string of 3 mag 12-13 stars angling from SW to NE and 2.8' SE of IC 458 in the NGC 2340 group (second faintest of 7 in the field at 280x).

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered IC 461 = Sw. 8-45, along with IC 458, 459, 464 on 31 Jan 1851.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 and by Hermann Kobold on 8 Dec 1893.  All 3 are credited in the IC as Kobold's position was used.  The MCG failed to label its +08-13-088 as IC 461. 

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IC 463 = LEDA 3717953

07 11 00.9 +50 07 04; Lyn

Size 0.3'x0.2';  PA = 85°

 

24" (2/13/18): at 375x; very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Can barely hold continuously with averted vision.  Located in a group, 1.3' SSW of IC 464 and 3.8' SSW of NGC 2340 (in a line).

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered IC 463, along with IC 458, 459, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851.  He labeled it Iota on the diagram of the field.  Hermann Kobold discovered it again independently at Strasbourg on 2 Dec 1893 (both Rosse and Kobold are credited in the IC).  This galaxy is not in the PGC and hasn't been assigned a LEDA designation.

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IC 464 = CGCG 234-087 = MCG +08-13-092 = WBL 133-009 = PGC 20332

07 11 04.8 +50 08 13; Lyn

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 60°

 

24" (2/13/18): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 SW-NE, 50"x25", bright core.  Located 2.4' SSW of NGC 2340 in a rich galaxy group.  IC 463 is 1.3' SSW.

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.35', even concentration but with no defined core of nucleus.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a rich group of galaxies with NGC 2350, IC 458, IC 459, IC 460, IC 461 and IC 465 in the same 280x field!

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, oval SW-NE.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a group with IC 458 5.0' WSW and IC 465 8.1' NE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered IC 464 = Sw. 8-45, along with IC 458, 459, 461 on 31 Jan 1851.  Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888.  Kobold measured an accurate position on 18 Jan 1893.

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IC 465 = NGC 2334 = MCG +08-13-098 = CGCG 234-095 = WBL 133-012 = PGC 20357

07 11 33.6 +50 14 53; Lyn

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70°

 

24" (2/15/18): at 375x; moderately bright, moderately large, round, strong concentration with a high surface brightness core that increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  Located 5.8' NE of NGC 2340 in a fairly rich group.

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', gradually increases to a very small, brighter core.  Furthest NE in a group of 7 galaxies in the field and 5.8' NE of the brightest member, NGC 2340.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, round, bright core.  Last of four galaxies in a 20' field and located 5.8' NE of NGC 2340.

 

Hermann Kobold found IC 465 on 4 May 1893, along with 8 galaxies besides NGC 2332 and 2340, with the 18-inch refractor at Strasbourg.  His position matches PGC 20357, which was discovered by Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle on 2 Jan 1851.  Although placed fairly accurately on a constructed diagram, no absolute positions were determined, so Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's measurement.  Unfortunately, Bigourdan's position refers to a faint star and the NGC position for NGC 2334 is erroneous.  Assuming PGC 20357 is the galaxy Dreyer had in mind as NGC 2330 (Malcolm Thomson disagrees), then NGC 2334 = IC 465 = PGC 20357.  MCG, CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD all label this galaxy as IC 465 and not NGC 2334.  NED and HyperLEDA give the equivalence.

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IC 466 = Sh 2-288 = LBN 1013 = Ced 92

07 08 36 -04 19; Mon

Size 1'x1'

 

17.5" (2/28/87): mag 12.5 star in an easy, very small, round nebulosity.  Located 1.5' SSW of a mag 10.5 star.  A wide pair of mag 10 stars lie 7' SW.  Enhanced with a UHC filter at 220x.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 466 = J 2-616 on 18 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 467 = UGC 3834 = MCG +13-06-007 = PGC 21164

07 30 17.3 +79 52 21; Cam

V = 12.6;  Size 3.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 80°

 

17.5" (2/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A faint mag 15 star is near the SW end.  Located 20' SSE of NGC 2336.

 

William Denning discovered IC 467 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "vF, pS, 22' ssf of NGC 2336."  Although his position is poor, the identification is certain based on the description.

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IC 469 = UGC 3994 = MCG +14-04-038 = CGCG 362-047 = CGCG 363-035 = CGCG 364-001 = LGG 145-004 = PGC 22213

07 55 59.1 +85 09 32; Cep

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 90°

 

18" (8/1/11): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, ~2.0'x0.8', broad concentration, brighter core increases to a slightly brighter nucleus.  This galaxy, NGC 2300 and IC 512 are the three brightest within 5 degrees of the north celestial pole.  IC 469 resides within an isosceles triangle formed by a mag 9 star 3.8' N, a mag 10 star 4.5' SW and a mag 10.5 star 3.7' SSE.  A 3' group of mag 11-13 stars is close NE, so the surrounding field is very distinctive.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 2.0'x1.0', large brighter middle, broad concentration but no nucleus.  Surrounded by three mag 8.5-9.5 stars.  Mag 8.5 SAO 1236 just 3.8' N is at the west edge of a scattered group of 10 stars including a close, faint double (mag 14/14 at 10").  Mag 9.2 SAO 1224 lies 4.4' SW and mag 9.5 SAO 1237 is 3.6' S.  This galaxy is relatively bright for an IC galaxy.  UGC 3993 lies 14' S.

 

William Denning discovered IC 469 on 14 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector while sweeping for comets.  It was found in the field of NGC 2300 "and about 40' SE of it."  He noted the "object lies central within a very curious semicircle of small stars.  It is faint, pretty large, extended, and a little brighter in the middle hunting and recorded "F, S, E, 46' sf of NGC 2336."

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IC 471 = UGC 3982 = MCG +08-14-035 = CGCG 235-033 = PGC 21659

07 43 36.4 +49 40 03; Lyn

V = 13.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 472 3.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 471 = Sw. 9-17, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eF; pS; R; np of 2 [with IC 472]."  His RA is 15 seconds too small, a similar offset as IC 472.

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IC 472 = UGC 3985 = MCG +08-14-036 = CGCG 235-034 = PGC 21665

07 43 50.3 +49 36 51; Lyn

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167°

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly elongated ~N-S, 30"x24", well concentrated with a roundish bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 471 3.9' NW.   Double star Es 1082 = 10.1/11.1 at 5.6" lies 4.7' SE and is collinear with the two galaxies.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 472 = Sw. 9-18, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eeF; pS; R; sf of 2 [with IC 471].  D * nr sf nearly points to both."  His position is 3' too far northwest, a similar offset as IC 471, and the double star is Es 1082.

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IC 474 = MCG +04-19-001 = CGCG 148-012 = PGC 21749

07 46 07.3 +26 30 18; Gem

V = 13.9;  Size 1.25'x0.4';  PA = 113°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, very elongated 5:2 or 3:1 WNW-ESE, ~45"x15", contains a very small brighter core/nucleus.  A mag 9 star (SAO 79676) is 5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 474 = J. 1-136 on 30 Jan 1892.  His position was 1.6' too far south, perhaps due to a positional error in the offset star.

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IC 475 = MCG +05-19-005 = CGCG 148-017 = Ark 140 = PGC 21795

07 47 09.2 +30 29 20; Gem

V = 14.0;  Size 0.85'x0.5';  PA = 137°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE. Increasing to 375x, clearly elongated 3:2 or 2:1, 0.5'x0.3'.  On occasion there seemed to be an elongated cemtral brightening or bar.  With averted the halo becomes more evident. A mag 13 star is 1' SW.  A mag 10.5 star is 6' W, along with a group of 5 mag 12.5-14.5 stars.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 475 = J. 1-137 on 17 Feb 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 476 = MCG +05-19-006 = CGCG 148-018 = WBL 152-002 = PGC 21796

07 47 16.3 +26 57 03; Gem

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45';  PA = 102°

 

24" (2/16/15): at 300x appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x12".  Appeared brighter in better conditions than two nights ago from Lake Sonoma.

 

24" (2/14/15): at 300x and 375x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Required averted vision and could not hold steadily.  Located just 1.5' NW of NGC 2449.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 476 = J. I-138 on 30 Jan 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 477 = MCG +04-19-006 = CGCG 118-016 NED02 = PGC 22037

07 52 06.9 +23 28 59; Gem

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; a step brighter than faint, round, 30" diameter, gradually increases to a slightly brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  Mag 8.8 HD 64036 lies 10' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 477 = J. 1-139 on 17 Feb 1892.  His position is accurate.  SIMBAD misidentifies LEDA 2807169 (off the W side) as IC 477.

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IC 478 = CGCG 148-055 = PGC 22109

07 53 41.6 +26 29 34; Gem

V = 14.7;  Size 0.65'x0.45';  PA = 12°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 15" to 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star lies 2' W and a similar star is 1.6' NW.  IC 478 is located 4.5' SSW of mag 7.6 HD 64207, which detracts from viewing, and 16.5' SSE of mag 5.0 Phi Gem.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 478 = J. 1-140 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "very faint, very small, diffuse and without central condensation" and an accurate position.

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IC 479 = MCG +05-19-020 = CGCG 148-058 = PGC 22138

07 54 22.2 +27 00 32; Gem

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~22"x18", weak concentration with no zones.  Forms an equilateral triangle with mag 13.5 star 1.4' NW and a mag 14.1 star (unequal double) 1.3' W.  Located 18.5' NE of mag 5.0 Phi Gem.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 479 = J. 1-141, along with IC 478, on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "pretty faint, round, 20" diameter."

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IC 480 = UGC 4096 = CGCG 148-062 = WBL 160-001 = PGC 22188

07 55 23.2 +26 44 36; Gem

V = 14.2;  Size 1.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 168°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 6:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.15', slightly brighter core.  Bulges very slightly but no nucleus seen.  Situated in a busy star field with a mag 15.5 star 1.2' S (collinear with the major axis).  A mag 10.9 star lies 2.5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 480 = J. 1-142 on 18 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "very faint, very pale, fairly large, elongated N-S."

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IC 481 = UGC 4130 = MCG +04-19-013 = CGCG 118-031 = PGC 22374

07 59 02.9 +24 09 38; Gem

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.25';  PA = 3°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; faint, thin slash 4:1 or 5:1 N-S, ~45"x10", low even surface brightness, no core or brightness zones. A mag 12.7 star is 1.4' SW. Located 4' S of a mag 9.8 star (SAO 79836).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 481 = J. 1-143 on 2 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 482 = MCG +04-19-016 = CGCG 118-035 = PGC 22409

07 59 47.3 +25 21 25; Gem

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 151°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; a step brighter than "faint", slightly elongated core region, the halo was generally round, but with averted seemed elongated 3:2 ~NNW-SSE, 25"x18".  A 24" pair of mag 13 stars is 2.5' NE and a 30" pair of mag 14 stars is 0.5' W.  Located 16' WSW of mag 5.9 Omega (2) Cnc.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 482 = J. 1-144 on 2 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 484 = CGCG 148-084 = WBL 165-003 = PGC 22419

08 00 01.1 +26 39 57; Gem

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 49°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; faint, low even surface brightness, ~0.3'x0.2'. But with averted vision, the halo occasionally extended to 0.5'x0.2' SW-NE.

 

24" (2/7/15): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~18"x12".  A mag 15.5 star is 0.8' SW.  IC 485 is 4.8' NE and IC 486 is 5.5' SE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 484 = Spitaler 11, along with IC 485 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892.  Both measured accurate micrometric positions.

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IC 485 = UGC 4156 = CGCG 148-088 = WBL 165-006 = PGC 22443

08 00 19.8 +26 42 05; Gem

V = 14.5;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; faint, fairly small, initially I just noticed the elongated central region ~20"x10", but much fainter outer extension unexpectedly flashed with averted vision.  These increased the size to ~0.8'x0.2'.

 

24" (2/7/15): at 260x; very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x10".  Faintest in a trio forming an equilateral triangle with IC 484 4.7' SW and IC 486 5.3' S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 485 = Spitaler 12a, along with IC 484 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  He noted it made an equilateral triangle with IC 484 and 486 though didn't measure a position.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 486 = UGC 4155 = MCG +04-19-018 = CGCG 148-087 = WBL 165-005 = PGC 22445

08 00 21.0 +26 36 49; Gem

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 139°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; relatively bright due to fairly good surface brightness, slightly elongated, 0.6' diameter, very small slightly brighter nucleus. A mag 13 star is 1.5' SE.  Brightest of IC 484, 485, 486, the trio fits within a 7' circle.

 

24" (2/7/15): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 18"x12", small brighter core.  Brightest in a trio with IC 484 5.5' NW and IC 485 5.3' N.  The trio, along with a few CGCG galaxies, from the small group WBL 165, and lies at a distance of ~380 million l.y.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 486 = Spitaler 12, along with IC 484 and IC 485, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 2 Mar 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 487 = NGC 2494 = UGC 4141 = MCG +00-21-001 = CGCG 003-002 = PGC 22377

07 59 07.0 -00 38 17; Mon

V = 13.1;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 95°

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, oval ~E-W, fairly small, bright core.  A nice triple star lies 4' ESE; the closer components are mag 11/12 with separation 19".

 

Lewis Swift found IC 487 = Sw. 7-10 on 11 May 1890 and reported "eeF; vS; R".  His position is 2' SE of UGC 4141 = PGC 22377, the only nearby galaxy.  Howe remarked the nebula was elongated at 110° (ESE-WNW).  This galaxy was discovered by Marth in 1864, but the RA reported in his discovery list for #110 (later NGC 2494) was 1.0 minute too large and neither Swift nor Dreyer connected NGC 2494 with IC 487.  UGC, MCG and CGCG label this galaxy IC 487 because of the positional match but NED, HyperLeda and SIMBAD equate the numbers.

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IC 490 = CGCG 118-055 = PGC 22607

08 03 20.1 +25 48 41; Cnc

V = 15.1;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 95°

 

24" (1/23/23): at 327x; very faint, small, roundish (probably slightly elongated), ~20" diameter. A dim mag 15.7 star is just off the NE edge.  A mag 9.4 star is 5' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 490 = J. 1-148 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 491 = CGCG 148-106 = PGC 22631

08 03 55.0 +26 31 14; Cnc

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.25';  PA = 114°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x and 520x; very faint to faint, small, round, 12" - 15" diameter, quasi-stellar or stellar nucleus.  Situated within a N-S string of mag 9 to 10.5 stars including a mag 10.2 star 1.5' NW.

 

IC 491 forms a very close pair (non-physical) with LEDA 1779405 0.5' NW.  This 16th magnitude galaxy appeared extremely faint and small, 6" diameter, and only occasionally popped.  The nearby bright star made the detection difficult.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 491 = J. 1-149 on 18 Mar 1892 and reported "very faint, very small, round, around 10" diameter."

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IC 492 = UGC 4212 = MCG +04-19-024 = CGCG 118-059 = PGC 22724

08 05 38.7 +26 10 05; Cnc

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, roughly oval 3:2, 0.6'x0.4', but changes shape with averted vision (like a face-on spiral) as the low surface brightness halo is glimpsed; irregular surface brightness. Mag 8.1 HD 66662 is 3' S.

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~30"x20", slightly brighter core.  A mag 14.5 star is close off the southeast edge, 30" from center.  Situated just 3.4' NNE of mag 8 HD 66662.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 492 = Spitaler 15 = J. 1-150 on 5 Feb 1891 with a 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The discovery occurred while searching the Winnecke's Comet.  He reported "13m; R; very gradually brighter middle; *13.5m 1/4' sf [south-following]."  He measured an accurate micrometric position with respect to HD 66662.

 

Rudolph Spitaler found it again 4 nights later with the 27-inch refractor at Vienna (presumably while also searching for the comet).  He called it a fairly bright comet-like nebula northeast of BD +26°1713.  Finally, Stephane Javelle found it a third time on 2 Mar 1892 (along with several others) with the 30-inch refractor at Nice, France.  All three are credited in the NGC.

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IC 493 = MCG +04-19-026 = CGCG 118-064 = PGC 22795

08 07 27.6 +25 08 03; Cnc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 17°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, contains a brighter core and a faint halo elongated 3:2 ~N-S, ~0.6'x0.4'.  A mag 14.6 star is 1' S.  IC 497 lies 38' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 493 = J. 2-151 on 2 Mar 1892 and reported "pB, elongated in the meridian [N-S]."  His position is 2.4' SSW of CGCG 118-064 = PGC 22795, although this appears to have been caused by an erroneous position for his offset star (PPM 98392).

 

Javelle rediscovered this galaxy on 14 Dec 1906 and described J. 4-1540 as "faint, elongated along the meridian, approximately 60" x 15", gradually condensed." His position is at the NE edge of the galaxy.  The 4th catalog, which included his last 330 objects, wasn't published.

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IC 494 = UGC 4224 = MCG +00-21-004 = CGCG 003-010 = PGC 22755

08 06 24.1 +01 02 10; CMi

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  PA = 49°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 45"x30", brighter core (fairly well defined) that gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  Located 9' SSE of mag 7.3 HD 67029 in the southeast corner of Canis Minor.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 494 = Big. 150 on 12 Dec 1888.

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IC 495 = CGCG 059-047 = PGC 22841

08 08 19.4 +09 00 50; Cnc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.55'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated E-W, diffuse, low nearly even surface brightness, 25" diameter. Two mag 9.8 stars are 5' WNW and 6' SW.  A mag 12 star is 1.5' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 495 = J. 2-617 on 9 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 496 = IC 2229 = MCG +04-19-028 = CGCG 188-066 = CGCG 119-001 = LEDA 93095 = PGC 22903

08 09 44.2 +25 52 54; Cnc

V = 14.6;  Size 0.55'x0.3';  PA = 30°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; IC 496 was resolved into a close pair (physical), separated by just 19" E-W.  The brighter western component (LEDA 93095) appeared faint, very small, round, 10"-12" diameter. The fainter eastern galaxy (PGC 22903) was very faint, extremely small, round, 6" diameter.  An 18" pair of mag 13.5/14 stars lies 1.5' SSE.  Located 7' WNW of mag 6.4 13 Cancri (K0-type).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 496 = J. 1-152 on 2 Mar 1892 and reported "faint, small, round, little brighter in the middle."  He found it again on 11 Feb 1896 and reported J. 3-1025 (later IC 2229) as "faint, roughly round, 30", granular, avec star of mag 13.5-14.  Both positions are very accurate, so its surprising neither he nor Dreyer noticed IC 496 = IC 2229.

 

NED identifies the western galaxy as IC 496, while HyperLeda identifies the eastern galaxy as IC 496.  Probably the number should apply to the pair (IC 496A and 496B?).  The eastern object is apparently an interacting (merged) double system.

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IC 497 = MCG +04-20-001 = CGCG 118-067 = CGCG 119-002 = KTG 20A = PGC 22918

08 10 06.1 +24 55 19; Cnc

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 177°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, ~0.5'x0.2', small elongated core. An easy 12" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars is 1' N and a 14th mag star just 30" NW of center.

 

24" (3/22/14): at 375x appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.4'x0.2', weak concentration. A 12" double (mag 12.5-13 stars) lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is just off the NNW side [27" from center].  Brightest in the KTG 20 triplet.

 

UGC 4257 = KTG 20C lies 2' SE and appeared as an extremely faint, thin edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.1', very low even surface brightness.  A mag 15.5 star is just off the west edge.  CGCG 118-068 = KTG 20B, just 1.0' S, was extremely faint to very faint (slightly higher surface brightness than UGC 4257), round, just 10" diameter.  A mag 13 star is 33" SE of center.

 

24" (1/25/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12", bright core.  A 12" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is 27" NW of center.  This galaxy is the brightest member of the KTG 20 triplet with UGC 4257 2' SSE and CGCG 118-68 3' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 497 = J. 1-153 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 498 = UGC 4255 = VV 526 = CGCG 031-059 = PGC 22895

08 09 30.3 +05 16 51; CMi

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  PA = 60°

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, broad weak concentration but no core/nucleus.  A distinctive group of stars is to the south including E-W and N-S strings.  The N-S string is roughly collinear with the galaxy.  A mag 13.5/14 double at 10" separation is 2' SW.

 

CGCG 031-060, situated 5.6' E, appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter (this is the core region), well defined.  A mag 8.3 star is 5' E with CGCG 031-060 nearly at the midpoint of IC 498 and this star.  LEDA 1280679 (B = 16.23), situated 9' ESE, appeared extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter.  Mag 8.3 HD 67874 is 1.5' NE and greatly detracts from viewing so it had to be kept just outside the edge of the field. A string of stars is close west.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 498 on 11 Nov 1888 with the 27" Grubb refractor at the Vienna University.  His position is accurate.

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IC 499 = UGC 4463 = MCG +14-04-054 = CGCG 363-046 = CGCG 364-005 = LGG 145-006 = PGC 24602

08 45 16.9 +85 44 24; Cam

V = 12.5;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 80°

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~50"x35".  Very low surface brightness outer halo with a fairly bright central region that is sharply concentrated to a very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14 star is superimposed on the SW side and a brighter mag 12 star is off the NE side, 1.2' from center.  Located 5.7' SW of mag 8.5 SAO 1370. UGC 4297 lies 20' SW.  This is the closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole!

 

William Denning discovered IC 499 on 8 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector while sweeping for comets.  He noted it was in the same field as IC 512 and called it "pretty faint, small and much brighter in the middle.  There is a telescopic star just on its N. side, and an exceedingly faint star is involved with the nebula, which lies in an irregular widely scattered group.  It bears magnifying well, and is relatively much brighter than [IC 512]."

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IC 500 = MCG -03-21-007 = CGMW 1-2344 = PGC 23011

08 12 39.6 -16 03 03; Pup

Size 1.1'x0.5';  PA = 54°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20",  pretty good surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the NE end. Pretty rich star field.

 

MCG -03-21-008, located 7' SE, appeared faint, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~25"x20", slightly brighter nucleus. Squeezed between a mag 11 star 1' SW (wide pair) and a mag 12 star 0.5' NE of center.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 500 = J. 2-618 on 11 Feb 1893.  His description reads "vF, diffuse, very faint * attached".  His position is accurate and the star is at the NE edge.

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IC 501 = CGCG 119-042 = PGC 23305

08 18 47.6 +24 32 15; Cnc

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.45';  PA = 125°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; very faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter.  Two mag 14.3 stars are 1.3' SW and 1.9' N, with the galaxy just east of the line connecting the stars.  IC 2271 lies 6.4' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 501 = J. 1-154 on 18 Mar 1892.  He described it as "faint, roughly round, with a small central condensation."  Harold Corwin notes that Max Wolf found it again on a Heidelberg Observatory plate taken in 1901 and included it in his first "Nebel-liste" (#42) that included 154 new objects in Lynx and Cancer. Dreyer caught the equivalence and assigned only one IC designation.

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IC 502 = CGCG 060-002 = PGC 23469

08 22 03.6 +08 45 09; Cnc

V = 14.5;  Size 0.55'x0.5'

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint, small, round, 20" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus at 375x. A 9" pair of 14th mag star is 2' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 502 = J. 2-619 on 12 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 503 = UGC 4366 = MCG +01-22-004 = CGCG 032-006 = PGC 23474

08 22 10.7 +03 16 05; Hya

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 112°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated nearly 2:1 NW-SE, ~0.7'x0.4', brighter core region, fainter extensions. A mag 12 star is 1.5' S.  IC 2327 lies 12' SW. A distintive ~5' group of mag 13-14 stars is just north of IC 2327.

 

Carl Frederick Pechüle discovered IC 503 in 1888 with the 11-inch Merz refractor at the Copenhagen Observatory.  It was found while searching for Comet Fay 1888 III.  His position was 1.7' too far south, but the identification seems certain as there are no other candidates.

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IC 504 = UGC 4372 = MCG +01-22-005 = CGCG 032-008 = WBL 179-001 = PGC 23495

08 22 41.2 +04 15 45; Hya

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  PA = 139°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; nearly moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Contains a relatively large bright core with a fairly thin halo.  A mag 11.0 star is 1' SE, the first in an equally spaced looping chain of 4 stars that leads directly to CGCG 032-012, 4.7' ENE.  The surrounding star field is overall pretty rich.

 

IC 504 is the brightest of a group of 7 galaxies (WBL 179) including CGCG 032-009 4' N, IC 506 12.5' ENE and IC 505 12' NE.  But the redshift of IC 504, along with CGCG 032-012, is only half the remaining members, so there appears to be two superposed groups at different distances.

 

CGCG 032-012, 4.7' ENE, appeared fairly faint, very small, round, 15"-18" diameter.  A mag 11.9 star is 40" SW, the first in a chain extending to IC 504.

CGCG 032-009, 4.0' N, appeared as a faint soft glow, 18", fairly smooth surface brightness.

CGCG 032-013, 8.5' NNE, appeared faint, small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 25"x10".

CGCG 032-011, 7' SE, appeared faint, small, roundish, 15" diameter.  A mag 13.8 star is at the south edge.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 504 = Sw. 7-11, along with IC 505 and 506, on 8 Mar 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; R; nr. p end of 4 st. in an arc of a circle.  1st of 3."  His RA is ~10 seconds too small, but the identification is certain as the description is a perfect match.

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IC 505 = UGC 4382 = MCG +01-22-008 = CGCG 032-015 = WBL 179-006 = PGC 23528

08 23 21.7 +04 22 21; Hya

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  PA = 144°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, small bright core.  The halo extends further on the southeast end, so the core appears offset from center.  Located on the northeast side of the IC 504 group = WBL 179, with IC 506 5' SSE and CGCG 032-013 6' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 505 = Sw. 7-12, along with IC 504 and 506, on 8 Mar 1888 and recorded "eF; S; R; little brighter in the middle. 2nd of 3."  His RA is 9 seconds too small (similar offset as IC 504), but the identification is certain.

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IC 506 = MCG +01-22-009 = CGCG 032-016 = WBL 179-007 = PGC 23536

08 23 30.7 +04 17 58; Hya

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 171°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, quasi-stellar nucleus.  Member of the IC 504 group (WBL 179) with IC 505 5' NNW and IC 504 12' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 506 = Sw. 7-13, along with IC 504 and 505, on 8 Mar 1888 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; ee diff.; 3rd of 3."

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IC 507 = NGC 2590 = UGC 4392 = MCG +00-22-010 = CGCG 004-020 = PGC 23616

08 25 01.9 -00 35 31; Hya

V = 13.1;  Size 2.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 77°

 

See observing notes for NGC 2590.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 507 = Sw. 8-47 on 3 Feb 1888 and recorded "eeF pS; vlE; bet 2 st; sev pB st nr; driving clock failed."  His RA matches NGC 2590 (despite noted uncertain), but the declination is 9' too far north.  Apparently he only picked up the central portion as the outer portions are clearly elongated.  This galaxy was discovered by Stephan in 1878 and his position is accurate.  Corwin notes that Dreyer made an error of 30 seconds in RA in precessing Swift's position to 1860 coordinates and Howe was unable to find IC 507 on 3 nights (MN, Nov. 1900) because of the poor NGC position.

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IC 508 = MCG +04-20-063 = CGCG 119-111 = KUG 0825+252 = PGC 23762

08 28 22.3 +25 07 29; Cnc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, elongated 3:2 E-W.  Sometimes a bar was noticed running E-W through the center.  The galaxy appeared more roundish and ~35" diameter at 375x.  A string of 5 stars (3 of 9-10th mag) running N-S lies 10' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 508 = J. 1-155 on 18 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 509 = UGC 4456 = MCG +04-20-066 = CGCG 119-121 = PGC 23936

08 32 03.5 +24 00 39; Cnc

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, relatively large, roundish, 1' diameter, diffuse glow with only a weak central brightening.  A mag 14.7 star is at the NE edge, 30" from center.  Situated 8.6' SE of 5.7-mag Upsilon1 (30) Cnc and 13' WSW of mag 6.3 Upsilon 2 (32) Cnc.  A mag 8.5 star is 8' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 509 = J. 1-156 on 18 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 510 = UGC 4460 = MCG +00-22-015 = CGCG 004-046 = PGC 23940

08 32 10.9 -02 09 45; Hya

V = 14.4;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  PA = 137°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 226x; faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~30"x25", low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.8 star is 1' NE and a mag 15.2 star is 0.7' SE.  Roughly 8' N is a distinctive group of 5 stars - 4 in a parallelogram and one in the interior. IC 510 is located 28' W of mag 5.8 HD 72660.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 510 = J. 2-620 on 20 Mar 1893.  His description reads "faint, very small, round, uniform brightness."  The object on the western arm is a companion galaxy.

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IC 511 = NGC 2646 = UGC 4604 = MCG +12-09-019 = CGCG 331-069 = CGCG 332-019 = LGG 162-003 = PGC 24838

08 50 22.0 +73 27 46; Cam

V = 12.1;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

See observing notes for NGC 2646.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 511 = Sw. 8-48 on 1 Sep 1888 and reported "vF, S, cE, wide D * nr. sf; sp of 2 [with IC 520]."  His position is fairly close to UGC 4510, the galaxy modern catalogues take as IC 511, though the "wide D[ouble] star nr south-preceding" is actually north-preceding (NW).  In August 2017 Courtney Seligman followed up on a group email with Harold Corwin and myself regarding a 10 minute RA error that Swift made on the discovery night and found the same correction could be applied to IC 511.  The resulting position (and Swift's description) matches NGC 2646!  This galaxy is "sp of 2" [with IC 520], whereas UGC 4510 and IC 520 are nearly a degree apart.

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IC 512 = UGC 4646 = MCG +14-05-002 = CGCG 363-049 = CGCG 364-008 = LGG 145-010 = PGC 25451

09 03 49.8 +85 30 06; Cam

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 175°

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated N-S, ~1.5'x1.2'.  Asymmetric appearance with an irregular surface brightness.  Appears to have a brighter "bar" though not centered in the glow.  A faint pair of stars is off the south side and a 10' string of stars oriented NNW to SSE is off the east side.  Located 12' WSW of mag 7.9 HD 75797.  This is the third closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness.  A 10' string of stars just east is oriented roughly N-S with a mag 9 star at the north end.  Lies 12' W of mag 8.0 SAO 1443.

 

William Denning discovered IC 512 on 23 Aug 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector while sweeping for comets at 40x. When he determined it was missing from the NGC, he initially thought it was probably a comet, but reobserved it several times on the morning of the 24th without detecting any motion and concluded it was a new nebula.  Using 145x, he reported it was "very distinct, round, and a little brighter in the middle.  There is a triangle of rather bright telescopic stars on the east side of it."

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IC 513 = MCG -02-22-019 = PGC 23983

08 33 05.1 -12 21 20; Hya

Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 39°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, small brighter core/nucleus, 35"-40" along major axis. A mag 11.7 star and two 13th mag stars are a couple of arc minutes north.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 513 = J. 1-157 on 20 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 514 = CGCG 004-066 = WBL 188-001 = PGC 24119

08 35 22.3 -02 02 49; Hya

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 160°

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 16 star is attached at the south edge.  Located 12' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 3.5' NE of a mag 10.1 star.  Forms a pair with CGCG 004-065 2.4' S.  I'm surprised that Javelle, who discovered IC 514, missed the CGCG as it's similar in brightness and size.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 514 = J. 2-621, along with IC 517, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, elongated in the meridian [N-S], no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 515 = UGC 4488 = CGCG 004-068 = WBL 188-003 = PGC 24125

08 35 31.3 -01 54 04; Hya

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 32°

 

24" (2/5/13): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 18"x14", soft even glow.  Located 3.1' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group and 2.6' NE of a mag 11.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 515 = J. 2-622, along with IC 516, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 516 = CGCG 004-075 = WBL 188-007 = PGC 24155

08 35 50.8 -01 52 16; Hya

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 65°

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, extremely small, slightly elongated, 12"x8", stellar nucleus.  Located 4.4' ESE of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 5.2' NE of IC 515.  CGCG 004-072 lies 4.5' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 516 = J. 2-623, along with IC 515, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 517 = CGCG 004-082 = WBL 188-008 = PGC 24179

08 36 22.1 -02 03 20; Hya

V = 15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 29°

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter. A mag 12 star lies 1.7' SW and a mag 14.5 star is closer at 0.9' SW.  Located 17' SE of NGC 2616 in the WBL 188 group (brightest member NGC 2616, along with 4 IC galaxies).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 517 = J. 2-624, along with IC 514, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, S, irr figure, no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 519 = CGCG 032-051 = PGC 24389

08 40 34.4 +02 36 41; Hya

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  PA = .°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 226x; very faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter.  A mag 15 star is 0.7' W and a mag 14.5 star is 1.6' SW.  Located 14' W of mag 7.8 HD 73995.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 519 = J. 2-625 on 17 Mar 1893.  His description reads "very faint, very small, round, difficult, close to a star of 14th magnitude."  His position is accurate.

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IC 520 = UGC 4630 = MCG +12-09-026 = PGC 24970

08 53 42.2 +73 29 27; Cam

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 0°

 

17.5" (3/20/93): this is an unusually bright IC galaxy. It appeared moderately bright, slightly elongated 4:3 N-S with a prominent small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SE edge [46" from the center].  NGC 2646 lies 14' W.

 

13.1" (1/11/86): fairly faint, small, round. A faint star is near the south end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 520 = Sw. 8-49 on 29 Aug 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bM; nearly bet a nr and a distant *; nf of 2 [with IC 511]; another suspected." Swift's position is accurate.  I'm surprised that the Herschels, d'Arrest and Tempel examined this area and missed this galaxy.

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IC 521 = MCG +01-23-002 = CGCG 033-004 = WBL 194-001 = PGC 24658

08 46 44.0 +02 32 15; Hya

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 80°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25" diameter, weak broad concentration.  Situated within a 7' group of stars, including four of mag 10.5-11.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 521 = J. 2-626 on 16 Mar 1893.  He reported "star of 13th mag [core] surrounded by nebulosity.  Nebulous character very certain." His position is accurate.

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IC 522 = UGC 4654 = MCG +10-13-031 = CGCG 288-010 = PGC 25009

08 54 34.9 +57 10 00; UMa

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 165°

 

24" (3/21/20): at 260x and 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated 5:4 NNW-SSE, ~40"x32", strong concentration with a relatively bright, round core and a diffuse outer halo.  At 375x the core increases to a very small bright nucleus.  Mag 8.3 HD 85697 lies 8' NNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 522 = Sw. 9-19 on 8 May 1890 and reported "pF; pS; R; BM; pB * np; ?eeF D* involved."  His position is accurate and the "pretty bright star north-preceding" is mag 8.3 HD 75697, though there are no stars involved in the glow of the galaxy.

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IC 523 = UGC 4652 = MCG +02-23-009 = CGCG 061-018 = PGC 24948

08 53 11.3 +09 08 53; Cnc

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (2/14/99): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  The view was perhaps hindered by mag 8.4 SAO 117225 3.3' NW and dew on my secondary.  Located 20' NW of the giant PN Abell 31.  Nearby are MCG +02-23-008 and CGCG 061-020.

 

At 100x using an OIII filter, Abell 31 appeared as a faint, huge, roundish glow encompassing a mag 10 star which is southeast of center.  With averted vision it spanned ~8' in diameter with a very low but irregular surface brightness.  The edge of the halo was not crisply defined.  The bright star is part of a distinctive parallelogram with sides roughly 9'.  The PN doesn't reach the mag 10 star 8' W although on photographs it extends this far.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 523 = J. 2-627 on 13 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is a little too far north as the offset star is slightly misplaced in declination.

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IC 524 = ESO 564-001 = PGC 25198

08 58 12.8 -19 11 31; Hya

Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 19°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.5'x0.4', very small brighter core. A mag 10.1 star is 2.3' NNW and a mag 8.4 star (HD 76772) is 9' WNW.  Located 20' W of mag 6.2 HD 77084 and a similar distance SSE of a mag 7.1 star (HD 76784).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 524 = J. 2-628 on 18 Feb 1893.  He recorded "very faint, very small, nearly round. I suspect, at times, a small bright point in the center of the nebulosity." His position is accurate.

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IC 525 = UGC 4735 = MCG +00-23-019 = CGCG 005-046 = KIG 295 = PGC 25344

09 01 22.5 -01 51 14; Hya

V = 14.6;  Size 1.0'x0.25';  PA = 10°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 226x and 375x; faint, very elongated 3:1 N-S, very low even surface brightness, 0.9'x0.3'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 525 = J. 2-629 on 20 Mar 1893.  He recorded "faint, little extended, peu étendue, elongated along the meridian [N-S], without condensation." His position is accurate.

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IC 526 = MCG +02-23-022 = CGCG 061-046 = PGC 25401

09 02 40.8 +10 50 30; Cnc

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 45°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, elongated ~5:3 NW-SE, small slightly brighter core, but fairly uniform surface brightness, 40" major axis. A mag 9.4 star is 6.5' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 526 = J. 2-630 on 19 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 527 = UGC 4810 = MCG +06-20-039 = CGCG 180-049 = PGC 25821

09 09 41.9 +37 36 04; Lyn

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter, gradually increases to a slightly brighter core.  On line with mag 12.5 and 10.5 stars to the NW [2.3' and 5.2', respectively].  Located 13' E of NGC 2759. Forms a pair with CGCG 180-050 6.5' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 527 = Sw. 9-20 on 19 April 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pL; R; ee dif; 2759 in field sf."  His position is a good match with UGC 4810 although NGC 2759 lies to the west-northwest.

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IC 528 = HCG 36A = UGC 4811 = MCG +03-24-001 = CGCG 091-008 = PGC 25783

09 09 22.6 +15 47 46; Cnc

V = 14.1;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 163°

 

48" (4/1/11): at 488x appeared bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core.  Brightest of 5 close galaxies in HCG 36 with "36C" 50" NW, "36B" 1.1' NE, "36D" 1.1' S and SDSS J090920.83+154747.3 25" W.  Located 1.8' SE of mag 8.9 HD 78574. This bright star affected the view of HCG 36B.

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, moderately large, elongated ~3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.4'x0.4'.  Contains a brighter core with faint tapering extensions.  View hampered by a mag 9 star (SAO 98393) just 1.8' NE.  This galaxy is the brightest in HCG 36 and the only member viewed.  It lies in the foreground of the other members of the quartet.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 528 = J. 2-631 on 12 Dec 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, vS, R, mottled, Nucl =13m" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 529 = UGC 4888 = MCG +12-09-035 = CGCG 332-038 = PGC 26295

09 18 32.7 +73 45 37; Cam

V = 11.9;  Size 3.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 145°

 

17.5" (4/5/97): moderately bright, fairly large irregular glow, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ill-defined halo up to ~2.8'x1.4', broad concentration to an ill-defined core.  A mag 14 star is just north of the SE end [1.2' from center] and a second mag 13.5-14 star is close NE [1.9' from center].  With averted vision, the outer halo increases further south than the star off the SE flank.

 

William Denning discovered IC 529 around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector .  The discovery was apparently communicated directly to Dreyer.

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IC 530 = UGC 4880 = MCG +02-24-003 = CGCG 062-010 = KIG 319 = Holm 114a = PGC 26101

09 15 17.0 +11 53 08; Cnc

V = 13.3;  Size 1.8'x0.4';  PA = 87°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; relatively bright (for an IC), fairly large edge-on, ~4:1 E-W, ~1.0'x0.25, but with averted vision appears to extend up to 1.5' in length.  Contains a bright, elongated core. A mag 9.8 star is 3.7' N and a mag 13.5 star is 3' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 530 = J. 1-158 on 22 Mar 1892.

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IC 531 = UGC 4923 = MCG +00-24-006 = CGCG 006-028 = PGC 26258

09 17 50.8 -00 16 43; Hya

V = 13.8;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  PA = 60°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1' major axis, low surface brightness, weak concentration with only a slightly brighter core.  A mag 12.5 star is 1' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 531 = J. 2-632 on 9 Mar 1893.

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IC 533 = LEDA 3081596

09 20 23 -03 59 31; Hya

Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 155°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, very small, slightly elongated ~NNW-SSE, 15"x10".  A mag 15 star is 1' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 533 = J. 2-633 on 18 Feb 1893.  He recorded "extremely faint, small, poorly defined, whitish spot without condensation."  HyperLEDA and SIMBAD identify this galaxy as LEDA 3081596, but are missing the IC designation.

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IC 534 = UGC 4968 = CGCG 034-033 = PGC 26471

09 21 15.5 +03 09 04; Hya

V = 14.7;  Size 1.6'x0.25';  PA = 148°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, relatively large, very thin streak ~8:1 NW-SE, ~1.5'x0.2', very low nearly even surface brightness, slightly brighter middle. A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' N of center and a mag 13.8 star is 1.9' SE (aligned with major axis).  NGC 2858 lies 28' due east.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 534 = J. 2-634 on 17 Apr 1893.  He described it as "very faint, small, diffuse. Appears as a whitish spot of uniform brightness." His position is accurate.

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IC 535 = CGCG 006-034 = PGC 26524

09 22 16.2 -01 02 25; Hya

V = 14.6;  Size 0.55'x0.5'

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  A small triangle of mag 14-15.5 stars is 2' SSW.  Mag 8.6 HD 80916 is 4.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 535 = J. 2-635 on 20 Mar 1893.  He recorded it as "faint, round, very small, without condensation."

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IC 536 = UGC 5006 = MCG +04-22-045 = CGCG 121-084 = PGC 26669

09 24 40.1 +25 06 37; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 1.2'x0.2';  PA = 24°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x and 375x; fairly faint, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, extends with averted to ~50"x20".  A mag 10.3 star is less than 5' NW. Located 16' ESE of mag 6.4 HD 80956.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 536 = J. 1-159 on 28 Mar 1892.  His description reads "faint, round, 30" diameter, with slight central condensation."  His position is off the northeast end of the galaxy (error in offset star?).

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IC 537 = MCG -02-24-020 = PGC 26717

09 25 22.6 -12 23 30; Hya

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

48" (5/9/21): at 375x; fairly bright, round, strong concentration, very bright core that increases somewhat to the center, much lower surface brightness halo ~45" diameter.  A mag 13.1 star is off the south side, 0.7' from center.  NGC 2881 = Arp 275 is 25' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 537 = J. 1-160 on 19 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 538 = NGC 2885 = UGC 5037 = MCG +04-22-058 = CGCG 121-098 = PGC 26943

09 27 18.5 +23 01 12; Leo

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80°

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, very small, round, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 40" E of center and a mag 14 star is 2' NW.  Located 8' NW of mag 8.5 SAO 80841.  Brightest in a trio with CGCG 121-099 1.8' ENE and IC 2474 1.8' NW.  Incorrect identification in RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 538 = Big. 154 on 21 Mar 1890.  His position (from 4 observations) matches NGC 2885.  This galaxy was discovered by John Herschel on 24 Feb 1827, but his RA (noted as uncertain) was 25 seconds too large and Bigourdan noted "does not appear to be NGC 2885". Dreyer noted the possible equivalence, though, in the IC description. MCG labels NGC 2885 as IC 538 only.  See NGC 2885 for more.

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IC 539 = UGC 5054 = MCG +00-24-017 = CGCG 006-047 = PGC 26909

09 29 08.2 -02 32 57; Hya

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~25"x20", weak concentration with slightly brighter nucleus.  Two small chains of mag 13 and fainter stars extend to the north and northwest.  IC 539 is located 13' N of mag 4.9 Tau1 Hya.  A mag 7 companion is 1.1' to its north and the pair (cataloged as HJ 1167) is collinear with the galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 539 = J. 2-636 on 9 Mar 1893.  His position is good.

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IC 540 = UGC 5064 = MCG +01-24-025 = CGCG 034-054 = PGC 26968

09 30 10.3 +07 54 10 ; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.25';  PA = 171°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 375x; fairly diffuse, very elongated ~3:1 N-S, ~45"x15", low nearly even surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 5' NNE.  Located 30' SE of 5.7-mag 3 Leonis. NGC 2894 lies 15' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 540 = J. 2-637 on 10 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 542 = MCG -02-24-031 = PGC 27012

09 31 06.2 -13 10 53; Hya

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 95°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 E-W, fairly even surface brightness, 30"x10".  A half-dozen mag 13-13.5 stars are within 4'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 542 = J. 1-161 on 22 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 544 = MCG +04-23-012 = CGCG 122-025 = PGC 27293

09 35 53.4 +24 53 42; Leo

Size 0.8'x0.25';  PA = 24°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 30" length, low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 545 4.3' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 544 = J. 1-162, along with nearby IC 545, on 21 Mar 1892.  His description reads "very faint, poorly defined, difficult."

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IC 545 = MCG +04-23-013 = CGCG 122-027 = Ark 205 = PGC 27307

09 36 05.4 +24 56 56; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x and 375x; faint, very small, round, 15".  A mag 14 star is close off the E edge, 0.4' from center.  This galaxy is a patchy blue spiral.  Forms a pair with IC 544 4.3' SW.  Located 29' NW of mag 6.6 9 Leonis.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 545 = J. 1-163, along with nearby IC 544, on 21 Mar 1892.  He recorded "faint, elongated following the diurnal movement [E-W]. Precedes a small star."  His position is accurate.

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IC 546 = MCG -03-25-007 = PGC 27234

09 34 50.2 -16 23 04; Hya

Size 1.1'x0.7';  PA = 100°

 

24" (2/13/18): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 25"x20" diameter.  A mag 13.7 star is attached on the north side.  Located 5' WNW of NGC 2924 and 3' E of mag 7.8 HD 82927, a wide unequal pair.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 546 = J. 1-164 on 23 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 547 = NGC 2947 = IC 2494 = MCG -02-25-004 = PGC 27309

09 36 05.8 -12 26 13; Hya

V = 12.4;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 25°

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, round, 1.2' diameter, almost even surface brightness, well-defined outer edge to halo.  Two mag 11 stars are off the SE edge 1.6' and 2.1' from the center.  Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 547 = J. 1-165 on 20 Apr 1892 and recorded "pB, small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration".  His position matches MCG -02-25-004 = PGC 27309.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 6 May 1886, but his rough position was 2 minutes of RA too large.  Since NGC 2947 matches in declination, and the Leander McCormick positions are generally 1 to 2 minutes of RA too large, the identification NGC 2947 = IC 547 is likely.  This galaxy was found a third time by Swift and catalogued as Sw. 11-95 (later IC 2494), with an accurate position from Howe.  Dreyer missed the two IC equivalences.  MCG labels the galaxy as IC 547 only.  Corwin notes "It is, so far as I know now (May 2003), the only object to have an entry in all three of Dreyer's catalogues."

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IC 548 = CGCG 063-024 = WBL 228-003 = PGC 27463

09 38 19.3 +09 26 46; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  PA = 166°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; faint, very small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~15"x8".  Situated between two faint stars; a mag 15.5 star is 0.9' NE and a mag 15.7 star is 0.6' SSW.  IC 548 is the third in a trio (line of sight) with NGC 2939 5.5' NW and NGC 2940 11' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 548 = J. 2-638 on 13 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 549 = MCG +01-25-010 = CGCG 035-027 = PGC 27622

09 40 43.2 +03 57 35; Hya

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 0°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, fairly small, elongated ~5:3 N-S, ~25"x18", low surface brightness.  A mag 14.8 star is 1' NW, with similar stars 2' NE and 2' SW.  NGC 2960 lies 23' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 549 = J. 2-639 on 19 Feb 1894.  He recorded "very faint, small, irregular form, central condensation."  The IC position is 1.6' too far north.

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IC 550 = MCG -01-25-014 = PGC 27607

09 40 28.6 -06 56 46; Hya

Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 32°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; nearly moderately bright, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~0.6' diameter, bright core increases gradually to a small bright nucleus. Located less than 5' SW of mag 7.7 HD 83792 and best with star out of the field.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 550 = J. 2-640 on 18 Feb 1893.  He recorded "faint, extremely small, stellar [nebula]."

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IC 551 = UGC 5168 = MCG +01-25-012 = CGCG 035-029 = PGC 27645

09 41 00.1 +06 56 10; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.55';  PA = 155°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; moderately bright, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, ~0.6' diameter, good surface brightness, small bright core increases somewhat to the center.  NGC  2948 is 30' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 551 = J. 2-641 on 10 Apr 1893.  He recorded "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, surrounds a stellar nucleus of 13th mag." His position is accurate.

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IC 552 = UGC 5171 = MCG +02-25-017 = CGCG 063-038 = PGC 27665

09 41 16.6 +10 38 49; Leo

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 176°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.8'x0.4', small bright core increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

CGCG 063-042, situated 3.7' E, appeared extremely faint, round, 12" to 15" diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 552 = J. 1-166 on 23 Apr 1892.  His description reads "faint, round, 10" diameter, small nucleus of 14th mag, stellar [nucleus?]."  His position is accurate.

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IC 553 = MCG -01-25-016 = PGC 27625

09 40 45.1 -05 26 07; Hya

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  PA = 118°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 30" diameter, nearly even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is close SE [0.9' from center].  Arp 253 pair of edge-ons is 40' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 553 = J. 2-642 on 18 Feb 1893.  He recorded "very faint, very small, round, 20" in diameter." His position is accurate.

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IC 554 = IC 555 = UGC 5178 = MCG +02-25-020 = CGCG 063-047 = PGC 27716

09 41 56.9 +12 17 47; Leo

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  PA = 18°

 

See observing notes for IC 555.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 554 = Sw. 10A-1 on 28 Mar 1892 and recorded "eeF, eS, almost stellar."  This was the first object in a short list of 8 nebulae published in MNRAS Vol. LIII, p.273, in his last year observing at the Warner Observatory in Rochester.  There is nothing near his position, but 9' SSE is IC 555, which Stephane Javelle discovered just 6 nights earlier!  So, it's reasonable to assume IC 554 is a duplicate observation of IC 555 given Swift's often poor positions in his later years.  Courtney Seligman questions this identification due to the discrepant descriptions (Javelled called the galaxy "pretty bright"), but Javelle was using a much larger refractor.

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IC 555 = IC 554 = UGC 5178 = MCG +02-25-020 = CGCG 063-047 = PGC 27716

09 41 56.9 +12 17 47; Leo

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  PA = 18°

 

24" (2/8/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2  SSW-NNE. 35"x15", sharply concentrated with a bright elongated core and stellar nucleus.  The extensions have a low surface brightness.  A mag 10.8 star lies 3.7' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 555 = J. 1-167 on 22 Mar 1892.  Described as "pretty bright, round, about 10" diameter, central condensation."

 

The galaxy was probably found again by Lewis Swift 6 nights later and reported as the first object in a short list that appeared between his 10th and 11th formal lists.  Swift's declination for Sw. 10A-1 (later IC 554) was 8' too far north.

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IC 556 = NGC 2984 = UGC 5200 = MCG +02-25-025 = CGCG 063-053 = PGC 27838

09 43 40.4 +11 03 39; Leo

V = 13.4;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (4/1/00): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  The halo, which fades at the edges, increases to ~0.6' with averted vision.  A mag 14.5 star is close SSW (33" from center) and a slightly brighter star lies 0.9' NE.

 

NGC 2984 forms a pair with IC 557 7' SE.  The companion appeared faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  The elongation was not always evident, so often I was just viewing the slightly brighter core.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 556 = J. 1-168 on 22 Apr 1892 and reported "F, vS, R, nucleus = 14th mag".  His position matches UGC 5200.

 

This galaxy was probably discovered by William Herschel on 15 Mar 1784 and catalogued as H. III-34 (later NGC 2984), but his position was unusually poor -- 1 min 19 sec of RA west and 3.5' south of IC 556.  Karl Reinmuth mentioned he couldn't find NGC 2984 in Dreyer's place using Heidelberg plates and questioned if it was equal to IC 556.  This is likely the case as there are no other reasonable candidates for NGC 2984 in the vicinity.  UGC, CGCG and MCG label this galaxy as IC 556 and RNGC calls it NGC 2984.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 557 = MCG +02-25-027 = CGCG 063-055 = PGC 27866

09 44 02.4 +10 59 17; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 40°

 

17.5" (4/1/00): faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  The elongation was not always evident, so often was just viewing the slightly brighter core.  Located 7' SE of NGC 2984.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 557 = J. 1-169 on 22 Apr 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 558 = MCG +05-23-033 = CGCG 152-063 = PGC 27931

09 45 00.4 +29 27 08; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  PA = 165°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, slightly brighter core and nearly stellar nucleus.  An easy unequal double is 9' NE (BRT 247 = 10.0/11.1 at 5.3").

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 558 on 23 Feb 1889 with the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.

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IC 559 = MCG +02-25-029 = CGCG 063-057 = PGC 27910

09 44 43.9 +09 36 54; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.75';  PA = 87°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; between faint and fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 30"x25", uniform surface brightness.  A mag 10.4 star is 2' E.  A similar star is 6' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 559 = J. 2-643 on 13 Apr 1893.  He recorded "faint, not very large, round, 40" diameter, without condensation." His position is accurate.

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IC 560 = UGC 5223 = MCG +00-25-013 = CGCG 007-030 = PGC 27998

09 45 53.4 -00 16 06 ; Sex

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  PA = 18°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S.  Contains a very small, round bright core with a low surface brightness halo extending 0.6'x0.3'.  A mag 10.8 star is just off the south side [36" SSW of center] and a mag 14.3 star is 45" W.  Located 5' SSE of mag 9.0 HD 84499.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 560 = J. 2-644 on 9 Mar 1893.  His position is 1' too far south due to an error in the dec of his offset star.

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IC 561 = MCG +01-25-019 = CGCG 035-049 = Holm 143C = WBL 239-001 = PGC 28002

09 45 58.9 +03 08 42 ; Sex

V = 14.7;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 6°

 

24" (2/24/20): at 200x; between faint and fairly faint, small, round, fairly low uniform surface brightness, 20"-24" diameter.  The close pair IC 563/564 (Arp 303) lies 7' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 561 = J. 2-645 on 21 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 562 = MCG -01-25-036 = PGC 28011

09 46 03.9 -03 58 16; Sex

V = 14.2;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 147°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 375x; fairly faint, very thin attractive edge-on, ~7:1 NNW-SSE, ~70"x10".  Contains a slightly brighter elongated core, but no nucleus or noticeable bulge.  A mag 15.3 star is off the NNW tip [56" from center].  A rough parallelogram of mag 10 stars (sides ~6'x4') lies east, with the closest star 6' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 562 = J. 2-646 on 8 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 563 = Arp 303 NED1 = MCG +01-25-022 = CGCG 035-053 = Holm 143B = WBL 239-002 = PGC 28032

09 46 20.3 +03 02 44; Sex

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  PA = 111°

 

24" (2/24/20): at 200x; between faint and fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 or 5:3, , 30"x20", low even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair (Arp 303) with brighter IC 564 1.6' N.  A 4' chain of four mag 11 and fainter stars extends towards the SW.  In a trio (WBL 239) with IC 561 8' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 563 = J. 2-647, along with IC 564, on 12 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 564 = Arp 303 NED2 = MCG +01-25-022 = CGCG 035-053 = Holm 143a = WBL 239-003 = PGC 28032

09 46 21.1 +03 04 17; Sex

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  PA = 68°

 

24" (2/24/20): at 200x; between fairly faint and moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 1.1'x0.35'.  Contains a relatively large, slightly brighter central region but no distinct nucleus.  Forms a close pair (Arp 303) with IC 563 1.6' S, and brightest in a trio (WBL 239) with IC 561 7' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 564 = J. 2-648, along with IC 563, on 12 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 565 = UGC 5248 = MCG +03-25-028 = CGCG 092-052 = FGC 945 = PGC 28159

09 47 50.5 +15 51 07; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 1.6'x0.2';  PA = 51°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; between faint and fairly faint, thin edge-on at least 6:1 SW-NE, relatively large, ~1.0'x0.15', low even surface brightness.  Images show a warped disc with a small companion at the W edge.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 565 = J. 2-649 on 16 Dec 1893.  He recorded "faint, small, poor definition, without condensation." and measured a good position.

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IC 566 = CGCG 007-044 = PGC 28279

09 49 56.4 -00 13 53; Sex

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (3/23/22): at 375x; fairly faint, very small, round, decent surface brightness, 15" diameter.  Located just 4' W of mag 7.1 HD 85180.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 566 = J. 2-650 on 9 Mar 1893.  He recorded "very faint, very small, round, 20" or more diameter. I glimpse, at times, a very small central nucleus."

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IC 568 = UGC 5285 = MCG +03-25-031 = CGCG 092-057 = PGC 28368

09 51 08.3 +15 43 50; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  PA = 16°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, ~30"x24", low irregular surface brightness with only a very weak central brightening.  In a faint quartet (USGC U264) with IC 570 10' ENE and IC 571/572 20' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 568 = J. 2-651, along with IC 570, 571 on 15 Jan 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 569 = MCG +02-04-053 = CGCG 063-086 = PGC 28391

09 51 28.2 +10 55 12; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 163°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 226x; between faint and fairly faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, even surface brightness, ~20"x15".  Nearly collinear with two mag 14.2/14.4 stars 1.3' S and 2.7' SSE.  Located 8' ENE of mag 8.3 HD 85269 (wide pair).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 569 = J. 1-170 on 27 Jan 1892.  His description reads "very faint, poorly defined, with a very slight condensation."

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IC 570 = MCG +03-25-032 = CGCG 092-060 = PGC 28407

09 51 51.0 +15 45 21; Leo

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 60°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 375x; extremely faint and small, round, 12" diameter, low even surface brightness, requires averted to glimpse.  Located 10' W of IC 571 in a faint quartet (USGC U264) with IC 572 and IC 568.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 570 = J. 2-652, along with IC 568, on 15 Jan 1894.  His position is accurate.

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IC 571 = MCG +03-25-035 = CGCG 092-063 = PGC 28445

09 52 31.6 +15 46 32; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 0°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, slightly brighter stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.  Similar to IC 572 3.1' N.  Member of a quartet (USGC U264) with IC 570, 571 and 572.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 571 = J. 2-653, along with IC 572, on 15-16 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 572 = Ark 220 = MCG +03-25-036 = CGCG 092-064 = PGC 28456

09 52 32.8 +15 49 37; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, very weak concentration.  Similar to IC 571 3.1' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 572 = J. 2-65, along with IC 571, on 16 Dec 1893.

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IC 573 = NGC 3058 = MCG -02-25-026 = VV 741 = PGC 28513

09 53 35.7 -12 28 55; Hya

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 35°

 

28" (4/12/18): at 366x; moderately bright, fairly small, elongated ~3:2 SW-NE, ~40"x25", very small slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 13.6 star is 1.1' W.  A very close, faint pair (~6" separation)  is 1.1' SSE.

 

NGC 3058 is interacting with NGC 3058 NED1 = LEDA 3442467, only 18" NW of center. The companion was very faint, extremely small, ~10" diameter, virtually attached to NGC 3058.

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, fairly small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' W.  A wide mag 12/13 pair at 45" separation lies 2' SSW and a mag 12/13.5 pair at 30" separation E-W lies 3.5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 573 = J. 1-171 on 20 Apr 1892.  His position is a good match with the double system MCG -02-25-026 = PGC 28513.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 6 May 1886, but his rough RA for LM 1-159 (later NGC 3058) was two minutes too large.  Leavenworth noted it was "double or bi-nuclear", so this identification is secure.  Howe later measured an accurate position for NGC 3058, matching with IC 573.  Because of the unambiguous position for IC 573, MCG only uses the IC designation for MCG -02-25-002

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IC 574 = MCG -01-25-056 = PGC 28569

09 54 27.0 -06 57 12; Sex

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

18" (4/14/12): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 24"x18", small brighter core.  IC 575 = Arp 292 lies 6' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 574 = J. 2-655, along with IC 575, on 9 Mar 1893.  He noted "pB, S, R, 20" dia, mbM, * 12 s." and measured an accurate micrometric position

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IC 575 = Arp 292 = VV 111 = MCG -01-25-058 = PGC 28575

09 54 32.9 -06 51 27; Sex

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  PA = 126°

 

48" (2/20/12): this unusual system has a dust lane along the major axis and a polar-ring like disc. The galaxy appears as a fairly bright oval, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', with a small bright core.  There was only a hint of the dust lane but narrow extensions or spikes were visible poking out on the NW and SE end, with the SE extension brighter. A mag 15.2 star is 1.3' NNE and two mag 13 and 14.5 stars are 2.3' SE and 1.7' SE, respectively

 

There are two close companions but I only noted LEDA 1028040 1.2' N.  The observation was made during a period of fairly poor transparency and seeing so this galaxy would be worth revisiting.  IC 575 is listed as a polar ring candidate in Whitmore et al "New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies" (1990AJ....100.1489W)

 

18" (4/14/12): at 246x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, ~28"x21", only a very weak broad concentration with no core or zones.  The extensions seen in the 48" were not resolved.  IC 574 lies 6' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 575 = J. 2-656, along with IC 574, on 9 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 576 = Mrk 1240 = CGCG 063-104 = PGC 28603

09 55 07.0 +11 02 22; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.55'x0.5';  PA = 168°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  A 12" pair is 5' ENE.  Several faint stars are close north, including four in an E-W chain.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 576 = J. 1-172 on 27 Jan 1892. He logged it as "very faint, round, 10" diameter." and measured an accurate position.

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IC 577 = UGC 5334 = MCG +02-26-001 = CGCG 064-002 = PGC 28662

09 56 04.0 +10 29 56; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.55'x0.5'

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x; very faint, small glow with a mag 14.5 star superimposed at the south edge, 25" diameter.  Forms a pair (KPG 220) with IC 578 3' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 577 = J. 1-173, along with IC 578, on 22 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.  The description should read "F * s[outh]", instead of "F * n"

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IC 578 = UGC 5337 = MCG +02-26-002 = CGCG 064-004 = PGC 28674

09 56 16.1 +10 29 10; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.45';  PA = 70°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~WSW-ENE, ~30"x20", very small slightly brighter nucleus.  Forms a physical pair (KPG 220 at z = .03) with IC 577, 3' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 578 = J. 1-174, along with IC 577, on 22 Mar 1892.  His position is just off the northwest edge of UGC 5337 (similar offset as IC 577, so probably due to poor coordinates of the offset star).

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IC 579 = MCG -02-26-005 = PGC 28702

09 56 39.4 -13 46 30; Hya

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  PA = 132°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 158x; very faint (at best), fairly small, elongated NW-SE, low surface brightness.  It was challenging to see the shape clearly, but seemed at times elongated 3:1, ~0.6'x0.2'.  More difficult to see when I increased to 226x.  Located 19' S of mag 6.8 HD 86173.

 

The identification of this galaxy as IC 579 is very uncertain (due to a poor discovery position) and the number is probably lost.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 579 = Sw. 8-50 on 25 Mar 1889 and reported "pF; pS; R."  There is nothing near his position and a search due east or west didn't reveal any possible candidates.  Harold Corwin suggests this number may apply to MCG -02-26-005 = PGC 28702, which is 23' due north of Swift's position, although this would imply an unusual error in declination.  There are similar galaxies about 15' NW and 15' ENE of Swift's positions, but these galaxies differ in both RA and Dec.  As Swift didn't leave any description of the star field, the identification IC 579 = PGC 28702 is just a suggestion, without any compelling evidence. Courtney Seligman considers the number as non-existent or lost.

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IC 580 = NGC 3069 = MCG +02-26-005 = CGCG 064-010 = PGC 28788

09 57 56.7 +10 25 57; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 166°

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very faint, very small.  Located on a line with NGC 3070 5.0' SSE and 30" pair of mag 13/14.5 stars 2' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 580 = J. 1-175 on 22 Mar 1892 and recorded "pF, vS, irr form."  His position is very close north of NGC 3069.  CGCG labels this galaxy IC 580, but it is clear NGC 3069 = IC 580.  J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 3069 on 15 Mar 1877 as LdR's assistant.  While observing NGC 3070 he noted "5' nnp is an object which I have little doubt is a vF, vS, neb, perhaps lE.  Clouds."

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IC 581 = UGC 5352 = MCG +03-26-008 = CGCG 093-010 = PGC 28800

09 58 11.6 +15 56 49; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 130°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; between faint and fairly faint, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~30"x20", occasional very faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.8 star is 1.3' N. A very faint, nearly stellar galaxy (LEDA 1497460) is 1.3' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 581 = J. 2-657 on 16 Dec 1893.  He recorded "quite bright, not large, ill-defined, envelops a core of 13th mag."  His position is accurate.

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IC 582 = UGC 5362 = MCG +03-26-011 = CGCG 093-016 = Holm 155a = PGC 28838

09 59 00.2 +17 49 02; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.8'

 

24" (4/13/18): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~36"x30".  Slightly irregular surface brightness with a very small slightly brighter nucleus.  Forms a close (physical) pair (Holm 155 at z = .025) with fainter IC 583 1.2' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 582 = J. 2-658, along with IC 583, on 16 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 583 = UGC 5363 = MCG +03-26-012 = CGCG 093-017 = Holm 155B = PGC 28844

09 59 05.1 +17 49 17; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.15';  PA = 113°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 375x; faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness, ~30"x10".  Forms a close pair with brighter IC 582 just 1.2' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 583 = J. 2-658, along with IC 582, on 16 Dec 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 584 = Ark 226 = MCG +02-26-010 = CGCG 064-015 = PGC 28839

09 59 05.1 +10 21 40; Leo

V = 14.8;  Size 0.35'x0.35'

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, small, round, 15" diameter. Often appeared elongated N-S (~20" total length), but this is due to a mag 15.8 star at the south edge.  Located 7.5' SE of mag 7.1 HD 86435 and 14' E of NGC 3070.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 584 = J. 1-176 on 28 Jan 1892.  He described it as "extremely faint, roughly round, 20" to 30" diameter, no concentration."

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IC 585 = UGC 5371 = MCG +02-26-014 = PGC 28897

09 59 44.2 +12 59 18; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, small, round, bright core, 40" diameter.  Located 4.4' SW of NGC 3080 and 2.9' SSW of a mag 13.5 star (mentioned in observation of NGC 3080).  Very similar size and magnitude as NGC 3080 and surprisingly, possibly easier visually due a brighter core.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 585 = Big. 157 on 18 Mar 1890.  His Comptes Rendus position is about 2' too far north (but matches in RA) and there is no mention of nearby N3080.

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IC 586 = MCG -01-26-004 = PGC 28906

09 59 50.3 -06 55 22; Sex

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x, 327x and 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, broad and weak concentration.  Nearly on the line connecting a mag 14.3 star 1.5' NW and a mag 11.3 star 2.7' NW.  A mag 10 star is 3.5' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 586 = J. 2-660 on 9 Mar 1893.  He recorded "faint, very small, poorly defined, mottled appearance."  His position is accurate.

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IC 587 = UGC 5411 = MCG +00-26-012 = CGCG 008-028 = PGC 29127

10 03 05.2 -02 24 00; Sex

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  PA = 106°

 

24" (2/23/22): at 260x; faint low surface brightness oval, elongated 5:3 WNW-ESE, 35"x20", no core or zones.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 587 = J. 2-661 on 20 Mar 1893.  There is nothing at his position, but if his offsets are reversed in direction.  Once corrected his position matches UGC 5411.

 

The MCG identifies this galaxy only as -00-26-012 and the CGCG as 470-028.  Neither list the IC identity, though the online databases NED, HyperLeda and SIMBAD do.

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IC 588 = UGC 5399 = MCG +01-26-010 = CGCG 036-023 = PGC 29057

10 02 07.0 +03 03 28; Sex

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 164°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x, 327x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 30"x15", contains a very small bright core with faint extensions.  Visible steadily with direct vision.  A mag 13 star is 2.5' W and a mag 10.9 star is 5' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 588 = J. 2-662 on 17 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 589 = LEDA 154597

10 04 23.9 -05 40 44; Sex

Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 20°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; fairly faint, round, 20"-24" diameter, occasionally a very small brighter nucleus popped.  Double star HJ 150 = 11.8/11.9 at 13" is 9' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 589 = J. 2-663 on 9 Mar 1893.  He noted "very faint, very small, ill-defined, seems to have, at times, two centers of condensation."  His position is accurate.  HyperLEDA and SIMBAD do not identify LEDA 154597 as IC 589.

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IC 590 = UGC 5443 = MCG +00-26-018 = CGCG 008-037 = PGC 29316

10 05 50.2 +00 37 59; Sex

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (4/14/18): at 282x and 375x; fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE.  The twin nuclei (separation 13") of this merged double system were immediately resolved within a common halo.  With careful viewing two overlapping haloes were visible, each ~15"-20" diameter.  The nuclei are oriented NW and SE with the NW nucleus slightly brighter and clearly stellar.  The eastern halo is possibly slightly larger and the nucleus was quasi-stellar.  A mag 12.6 star is 1' WNW.  Located 1.1° NW of mag 4.5 Alpha Sextans.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 590 = J. 2-664 on 11 Mar 1893 and wrote "faint, diffuse, appears as a double star surrounded by nebulosity".  Javelle's description implies he resolved both nuclei in this close double system.

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IC 591 = UGC 5458 = MCG +02-26-025 = Todd 22 = Ark 231 = PGC 29435

10 07 27.7 +12 16 28; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 170°

 

24" (3/31/22 and 4/15/23): at 226x, 327x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~5:3 N-S, ~40"x25", broad concentration. The brighter core region is rounder.  Located 23' NNW of Regulus and 15' W of the center of the Leo I dwarf.

 

17.5" (2/13/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Located 15' W of center of dwarf galaxy Leo I in the same 140x field (35')!

 

David Todd discovered IC 591 = Todd 22 = J. 1-177 on 6 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet using the 26-inch Clark refractor at USNO.  It was not assigned an NGC designation as no position was given.  But Harold Corwin found his sketch is a good match with UGC 5458, specifically a mag 13 star that is 86 seconds of time west, along with a pair of stars that are roughly 5' ENE of IC 591.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 31 Mar 1892, so the IC position is accurate.  UGC doesn't label UGC 5458 as IC 591.

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IC 592 = UGC 5465 = MCG +00-26-020 = CGCG 008-045 = PGC 29465

10 07 58.8 -02 29 50; Sex

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (4/14/18): at 282x; faint, small, round, at most 30" diameter, low surface brightness.  The view was significantly affected by mag 7.7 HD 87888, just 1.5' SSW.  Forms a pair with IC 593 5' ESE.  Part of a small group (USGC U282) at z = .02 (~275 million l.y.)

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 592 = J. 2-665, along with IC 593, on 21 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 593 = UGC 5469 = MCG +00-26-021 = CGCG 008-047 = PGC 29482

10 08 18.0 -02 31 36; Sex

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 97°

 

24" (4/14/18): at 282x; faint, small, round, 25" diameter, fairly low even surface brightness.  Located 5' E of mag 7.7 HD 87888, far enough away to keep outside the field.  Forms a pair with IC 592 5' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 593 = J. 2-666, along with IC 592, on 21 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 594 = UGC 5472 = MCG +00-26-023 = CGCG 008-049 = CIG 401 = PGC 29496

10 08 32.0 -00 40 01; Sex

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 127°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly small, very elongated ~3:1 NW-SE, low uniform surface brightness, 40"x15".  Situated just 2' S of mag 9.7 HD 87958, among a group of scattered stars.  Located 20' SSE of mag 4.5 Alpha Sextans.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 594 = J. 2-667 on 17 Mar 1893.  He recorded "faint, small, round, 30" in diameter, gradually condensed, looks grainy." His position is accurate.

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IC 595 = CGCG 064-081 = PGC 29555

10 09 38.1 +11 00 01; Leo

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7x0.5';  PA = 170°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness. A mag 13.5 star is 3' ENE and an equilateral triangle (sides 2') of mag 14-14.5 stars is ~8' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 595 = J. 1-178 on 28 Jan 1892. Recorded as "faint, small, round, 15" diameter, weak concentration." His position is accurate.

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IC 596 = MCG +02-26-030 = CGCG 064-084 = PGC 29621

10 10 31.4 +10 02 33; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 19°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x, 327x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, very elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, ~40"x15", weak concentration, slightly brighter nucleus.  Three mag 13-14 stars to N and NE, the closest one is 2' N.  Two mag 14 stars to SW, closest is 2' SW.  Located 39' ENE of mag 4.4 31 Leonis.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 596 = J. 2-668 on 18 Apr 1893.  Noted as "faint, small, poorly defined, diffuse."  His position is accurate.

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IC 597 = LEDA 154761

10 10 12.0 -06 53 57; Sex

Size 0.6'x0.2';  PA = 170°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, small, elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.25', low surface brightness.  MCG -01-26-029, located 10.5' ESE, appeared very faint, round, 30" diameter, low uniform surface brightness (face-on spiral).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 597 = J. 2-669 on 4 May 1893.  Described as "faint, small, round, 20" diameter, without condensation."  His position is accurate.  HyperLEDA and SIMBAD fail to recognize LEDA 154761 as IC 597 since it is missing from the PGC.

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IC 598 = UGC 5502 = MCG +07-21-016 = CGCG 211-017 = KUG 1009+433 = PGC 29745

10 12 48.6 +43 08 44; UMa

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.45';  PA = 7°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; moderately bright and large, elongated 3:1 N-S, 1.0'x0.35'.  Contains a small high surface brightness core with much fainter wings N-S.  Located 49' WNW of mag 3.4 Lambda UMa (Tania Borealis).

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 598 = Sw. 8-51 on 27 Mar 1889 and reported "vF; vS; R; BM. Almost stellar."  There is nothing at his position, but 6.6' SSW is UGC 5502, the brightest nearby galaxy.  This is almost certainly IC 598, though I'm surprised Swift called it round as it was clearly elongated.

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IC 599 = MCG -01-26-032 = PGC 29771

10 13 12.5 -05 37 44; Sex

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.25';  PA = 36°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; very faint, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 SW-NE, ~30"x15".  A mag 15 star is 1.6' SSE and a mag 11.2 star is 5' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 599 = J. 2-670 on 4 May 1890.  He recorded "Quite faint, small, poorly defined, very slightly condensed."

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IC 600 = VV 97 = MCG +00-26-034 = CGCG 008-085 = UGCA 209 = PGC 30041

10 17 10.9 -03 29 52; Sex

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 25°

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, moderately large, 1.5' diameter, irregularly round, broad concentration, low surface brightness.  Forms the vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with a nice double star 5' N (mag 11/12 at 18" separation) and a mag 9 star (SAO 118106) 5.6' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 600 = J. 2-671 on 3 May 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 Henry Bros. refractor at the Nice Observatory. His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 601 = MCG +01-26-033 = CGCG 036-087 = Holm 176b = PGC 30086

10 18 15.3 +07 02 19; Leo

V = 15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 41°

 

17.5" (3/25/00): extremely faint, very small streak, ~20"x5".  Visible with averted vision only and could not hold continuously.  Located 1.3' SW of brighter IC 602.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 601 = J. 2-672, along with IC 602, on 10 Apr 1893.

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IC 602 = NGC 3186? = UGC 5561 = MCG +01-26-034 = CGCG 036-089 = Ark 237 = Holm 176a = PGC 30090

10 18 19.7 +07 02 57; Leo

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 177°

 

17.5" (3/25/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.8'x0.4', small bright core.  A mag 12 star is just off the SW end.  A group of 4 stars (trapezoid outline) is 4' NE.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 601 1.3' SW (see notes).  MCG +01-26-032 (identified as NGC 3186 in RNGC) lies 11' SW.

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.8'x0.6'.  A mag 12.5-13 star is just off the SW side 35" from center.  A nearly square asterism of mag 11.5-14 stars with sides ~1.5' lies 4' NE.  Forms a pair with IC 601 1.3' SW (not seen).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 602 = J. 2-673, along with IC 601, on 10 Apr 1893.  NGC 3186 may be identical to IC 602.  See that number for the story.

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IC 603 = MCG -01-26-041 = PGC 30166

10 19 25.1 -05 39 22; Sex

Size 1.2'x0.9';  PA = 155°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated 5:4 NNW-SSE, 35" diameter, a little brighter core, occasional brighter nucleus flashed. The problem is mag 9.3 SAO 137488 just 1.4' N, which disturbs the view.

 

MCG -01-26-040, just 3.5' NW, appeared faint, very small, round, 15" diameter. At 375x a stellar nucleus occasionally popped.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 603 = J. 2-674 on 4 May 1893.  He noted "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, stellar nucleus of mag 13.5."  Host of SN 2002jm.

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IC 604 = NGC 3220 = UGC 5614 = MCG +10-15-073 = CGCG 290-034 = Holm 182b = WBL 265-004 = PGC 30462

10 23 45.2 +57 01 38; UMa

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 96°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3220.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 604 = Sw. 9-22 on 8 Aug 1890 and reported "eeeF; vS; eeE; spindle; ? several eeF st[ars] in a line."  His position and description matches NGC 3220 = UGC 5614.  William Herschel discovered this galaxy on 8 Apr 1793 and also recorded an accurate position (offset).  Dreyer apparently missed the match in position, but NGC 3220 = IC 604.

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IC 605 = UGC 5606 = MCG +00-27-003 = CGCG 009-010 = PGC 30363

10 22 24.1 +01 11 54; Sex

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.55';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 9°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 375x; faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low nearly uniform surface brightness. Located 6' NW and of mag 8.4 HD 118267 and 5' NE of mag 9.1 HD 89823.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 605 = J. 2-675 on 11 Mar 1893.  He noted "faint, roughly round, 30" diameter, gradually condensed."

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IC 606 = NGC 3217 = Mrk 721 = VIII Zw 074 = MCG +02-27-006 = CGCG 065-017 = Todd 29 = PGC 30448

10 23 32.6 +10 57 35; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 30°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x and 375x; between faint and pretty faint, small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter center. A mag 14.3 star is 1.4' SW.  Located 25' NW of mag 6.8 HD 90123.

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  Situated in a small group of mag 13-14 stars and a mag 11.6 star 2.6' SE.  Discovered by David Todd in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and equivalent to IC 606.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 606 = J. 2-676 on 18 Apr 1893.  His position matches CGCG 065-017 = PGC 30448.  David Todd discovered this galaxy on 4 Mar 1878 using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the US Naval Observatory during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  His position for Todd 29 (later NGC 3217) was 2.1 minutes of RA too far west and 4' too far south, but his sketch shows two nearby stars that match this galaxy.  So NGC 3217 = IC 606.  PGC, MCG, CGCG and SIMBAD (and amateur software such as Megastar) use the IC designation only and RNGC misclassifies NGC 3217 as nonexistent.  NED and HyperLeda equate the two identities.

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IC 607 = Arp 43 = UGC 5628 = MCG +03-27-018 = CGCG 094-030 = PGC 30496

10 24 08.6 +16 44 31; Leo

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 110°

 

28" (4/12/18): at 285x; fairly faint, moderately large, irregular round, ~0.8' diameter.  Contains a small, slightly brighter nucleus.  Occasionally a slightly brighter spot appeared on the north side [brightening at the end of the central bar]. A mag 14.3 star is just off the SW side [45" from center].  Two mag 12.5 stars lie 3' and 4' SE

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, low surface brightness, ~50" diameter, slightly brighter core, very faint nucleus (possibly stellar).  A mag 14.3 star is 45" SW. A 1' pair of mag 12/12.5 stars 3'-4' SE is collinear with the galaxy.  Located 28' SW of NGC 3239 = Arp 263.

 

CGCG 094-033 lies 6' ESE.  It appeared extremely faint, very small, seems elongated (difficult to confirm) NW-SE, 15"x10", requires averted.  A mag 12 star is 1.9' due west.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 607 = Sw. 8-52 on 29 Mar 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; * near sp; 2 near sf point to it; ee difficult."  His position is 2' too far north, but the description is a perfect match with Arp 43.

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IC 608 = MCG -01-27-008 = PGC 30500

10 24 21.1 -06 02 21; Sex

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 108°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated E-W, 30" diameter, diffuse with a low surface brightness, very slightly brighter center.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 608 = J. 2-677 on 4 May 1893.  Described as "faint, small, round, 30" diameter, even surface brightness." His position is accurate.

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IC 609 = Arp 44 = VV 354a = UGC 5641 = MCG +00-27-009 = CGCG 009-026 = PGC 30600

10 25 35.5 -02 12 56; Sex

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 10°

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.8', very weak concentration.  An unequal pair of mag 13/14.5 stars [at 36" separation] lies 3.5' W.  The nearby companion PGC 1097822 (not a physical pair) was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 609 = J. 2-678 on 21 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 610 = IC 611 = UGC 5653 = MCG +03-27-034 = CGCG 094-052 = FGC 1067 = PGC 30670

10 26 28.4 +20 13 42; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 1.8'x0.25';  PA = 28°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; moderately faint, very nice edge-on, fairly large, pretty uniform in thickness and brightness, ~1.6'x0.25', just a very slight central brightening and bulge.  A wide pair of mag 10/11 stars at 1.1' separation is 5' N.  IC 610 is located 4.8' SE of mag 9.1 HD 90360 (a double star is 1' to its south) and 48' NE of the NGC 3226/3227 pair (Arp 94).

 

Édouard Stephan first discovered IC 610 = Sw. 8-53 on 13 Mar 1874.  His RA was just 2 seconds too small, though he never published this observation and this galaxy didn't receive a NGC designation.

 

Lewis Swift discovered it again on 20 Apr 1889 (after the publication of the NGC) and reported it in his 8th discovery list as "eeF; pS; cE; in center of semicircle of 3 wide D st; ee diff."  His RA was 12 seconds too small. Swift apparently found this edge-on again just 2 nights later and called it "eF; S; lE."  His position is just 1.4' to the NW. Since his positions for #53 and #54 were fairly similar, it's surprising neither Swift nor Dreyer questioned if they were identical.

 

CGCG and MCG only identify this galaxy as IC 611.

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IC 611 = IC 610 = UGC 5653 = MCG +03-27-034 = CGCG 094-052 = FGC 1067 = PGC 30670

10 26 28.4 +20 13 42; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 1.8'x0.25';  PA = 28°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; moderately faint, very nice edge-on, fairly large, pretty uniform in thickness and brightness, ~1.6'x0.25', just a very slight central brightening and bulge.  A wide pair of mag 10/11 stars at 1.1' separation is 5' N.  IC 610 is located 4.8' SE of mag 9.1 HD 90360 (a double star is 1' to its south) and 48' NE of the NGC 3226/3227 pair (Arp 94).

 

Lewis Swift found IC 611 = Sw. 8-54 on 22 Apr 1889 and reported "eF; S; lE."  His position is less than 2' NW of IC 610, discovered two night earlier by Swift!  See IC 610.

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IC 612 = MCG +02-27-019 = CGCG 065-039 = PGC 30729

10 27 05.8 +11 03 17; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 0°

 

17.5" (5/19/01): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Forms the northern vertex of a small triangle with two mag 13 stars 40" SSW and 46" SE.  Located in the core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 lies 2.7' S and IC 615 4.2' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 612 = J. 2-679, along with IC 613 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 613 = MCG +02-27-018 = CGCG 065-038 = PGC 30728

10 27 07.8 +11 00 39; Leo

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, small, round, 0.6', low surface brightness.  A mag 11 star lies 1.9' W.  In the core of AGC 1016 with IC 612 2.7' N and IC 615 5.4' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 613 = J. 2-680, along with IC 612 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 614 = MCG +00-27-015 = CGCG 009-039 = WBL 272-002 = PGC 30699

10 26 51.9 -03 27 53; Sex

Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 17°

 

48" (4/18/15): at 697x; this Ring galaxy appeared moderately bright, round, sharply concentrated with a small bright core about 12" diameter and a low surface brightness halo ~30" diameter.  The ring feature (brighter rim) was not seen.

 

IC 614 is classified as a Collisional Ring Galaxy in Madore's 2009 "Atlas and Catalogue of Collisional Ring Galaxies".  The collider is supposedly on the north side of the ring, but there is no distinct object at this position on the SDSS.  The nucleus is a Sy2.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 614 = J. 2-681 on 3 May 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 615 = UGC 5665 = MCG +02-27-020 = CGCG 065-041 = PGC 30751

10 27 22.1 +11 04 47; Leo

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 143°

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Extended towards a mag 13 star 2' SE of center.  Brightest of trio in core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 4.2' SW and IC 612 5.4' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 615 = J. 2-682, along with IC 612 and 613 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 Henry Bros. refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 616 = UGC 5730 = MCG +03-27-060 = CGCG 094-087 = Holm 200A = PGC 31159

10 32 47.6 +15 51 39; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly small, round, 30"-40" diameter, nearly even surface brightness. A mag 13.7 star is 1.5' SE.  Two mag 11.2/11.6 stars situated 5.5' and 8' WNW point directly to the galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 616 = J. 2-683 on 16 Dec 1893. Noted as "faint, a little extended, round(ish?), 40" diameter, without concentration."

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IC 617 = NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = MCG -02-27-006 = MCG -02-27-007 = PGC 31153 = PGC 31156

10 32 43.7 -12 38 15; Hya

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 3280.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 617 = J. 1-179 on 19 Apr 1892.  His position matches MCG -02-27-006/007 = PGC 31153/31156 (a third component may have been too faint).  This galaxy was discovered earlier by both Andrew Ainsley Common in 1880 and Francis Leavenworth in 1886 and catalogued as NGC 3280 and 3295, respectively.  Both of the earlier positions were very poor, so Javelle assumed this was a new discovery, but NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = IC 617.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes and Malcolm Thomson's IC Research Database for more.

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IC 618 = NGC 3296 = PGC 31155

10 32 45.4 -12 43 03; Hya

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

See observing notes for NGC 3296.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 618 = J. 1-180 on 19 Apr 1892 and reported "faint, small, elongated E-W, slightly brighter center."  His position matches PGC 31155.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 26 Feb 1886, but his rough RA for LM 1-174 (later NGC 3296) is 2.7 minutes too large.  Howe measured a corrected position for NGC 3296 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section), which clearly establishes NGC 3296 = IC 618. See Corwin's notes.

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IC 619 = UGC 5735 = MCG +02-27-025 = CGCG 065-056 = PGC 31235

10 33 50.0 +12 52 42; Leo

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.65';  PA = 177°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, low surface brightness, very weak concentration, at most 30" diameter.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 619 = Sw. 8-55 on 21 Apr 1889.  His description reads "eeF; S; R; a pretty large triangle of 3 faint stars following, one a very faint double."  There is nothing at all near his position.  CGCG 065-048 is about 30' W, but the star field doesn't match the description.  UGC 5735 is 20' N and ~20 seconds of RA east of Swift's position, but there is a faint triangle to the southeast, with one of the stars a double, so this identification is plausible.  Malcolm Thomson listed UGC 5735 as a "Possible candidate" and Corwin asserts IC 619 = UGC 5735 based on the description.  PGC and HyperLEDA identify this galaxy as UGC 5735 only and have no entry for IC 619.

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IC 620 = CGCG 065-055 = WBL 279-005 = PGC 31215 = LEDA 2800960

10 33 33.4 +11 52 17; Leo

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 88°

 

24" (3/31/22 and 3/15/23): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly diffuse, nearly even surface brightness (small slightly brighter nucleus), roundish, well defined 25" halo.  A mag 10.5 star is 3.4' NNE. On a line between IC 620 and this star is a dim 16th mag star and LEDA 3757313, a very compact 16th mag galaxy.

 

IC 620 is a double system, but the companion at the NW edge wasn't seen. It's a member of a group (WBL 279) that includes CGCG 065-51, -52, -53, -54 and LEDA 3757313.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 620 = J. 1-181 on 31 Mar 1892. Noted as "very faint, very small, poorly defined."  His position corresponds with the brighter southeastern component of a double, (interacting?) system.  LEDA misidentifies the fainter northwestern galaxy as IC 620 (as of 2023).

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IC 621 = CGCG 037-074 = PGC 31196

10 33 21.0 +02 36 58; Sex

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 82°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; fairly faint, round, 20"-24" diameter, nearly uniform surface brightness. A wide pair of  mag 10.7 and 11.5 stars are 1.5' and 2.2' SE.  Situated 9' W of mag 7.8 HD 91500.

 

Forms a pair (same redshift) with CGCG 37-75 (often misidentified as IC 621) 4' N. The companion appeared very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", very low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 621 = J. 2-684 on 7 Apr 1893.  Described as "faint, roughly round, small spot 30" in diameter."  The position is nearly midway between CGCG 037-074 and CGCG 037-075, which are separated by 4' N-S.  The latter galaxy is fainter, but a little closer to the IC position and is identified as IC 621 in CGCG, PGC and HyperLeda.  But Harold Corwin determined that the declination for the BD star used for Javelle's offset has an error of 2.5' too far north and once corrected, Javelle's position matches CGCG 037-074.  NED and SIMBAD give the correct identifications.

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IC 622 = NGC 3279 = UGC 5741 = MCG +02-27-027 = CGCG 065-059 = FGC 1100 = Todd 30 = Holm 201a = PGC 31302

10 34 42.8 +11 11 50; Leo

V = 13.4;  Size 2.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152°

 

24" (4/15/23): fairly faint and relatively large edge-on, ~2.0' x 20" NNW-SSE. Broad, weak concentration but no core. Very nice.  A mag 10.5 star is 3.6' N of center.

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, moderately large, edge-on 6:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness. UGC 5737 lies 12' W.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 622 = Sw. 9-23 on 29 Jan 1890 and reported "vF pS; E; 9m * s[outh]."  His position is 2' W of UGC 5741 = PGC 31302 and the identification is certain, though the bright star is north, not south.  This galaxy was discovered by David Todd on 5 Mar 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet with the 26-inch Clark refractor at the USNO and listed as object #30 (later NGC 3279) in his search results.  His position is roughly 2 minutes of RA west of UGC 5741 (not an unusual error) but his sketch shows a very elongated galaxy surrounded by stars matching the sky, so the identification NGC 3279 = IC 622 is certain.  UGC and MCG label this galaxy as IC 622 and don't apply the NGC designation.

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IC 623 = UGC 5748 = MCG +01-27-017 = CGCG 037-085 = PGC 31356

10 35 21.0 +03 33 30; Sex

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  PA = 151°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly small, extended ~5:2 NNW-SSE, ~40" in length, low and uniform surface brightness.   A mag 15.1 star is less than 1' S. IC 623 is located 3.4' SSW of a mag 9.7 star.  This star is within a chain extending SW to NE, passing to the SW of the galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 623 = J. 2-685 on 7 Apr 1893.  His description reads "faint, roughly round, about 30" in diameter, without concentration."  His position is just off the west side of the galaxy.

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IC 624 = MCG -01-27-026 = LGG 205-008 = PGC 31426

10 36 15.2 -08 20 02; Sex

Size 2.7'x0.5';  PA = 39°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; relatively bright, very elongated 3:1 or perhaps 7:2 SW-NE, ~1.4'x0.4', well concentrated with much brighter middle.  A mag 12.2 star is 2.7' E and a mag 14.4 star 1.2' E.

 

Member of the loose LGG 205 group, which includes NGC 3243/3325/3340, IC 632/633/653.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 624 = J. 2-686 on 4 May 1893.  His description reads "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, without concentration."

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IC 625 = ESO 501-080 = MCG -04-26-001 = LGG 212-003 = PGC 31919

10 42 38.0 -23 56 08; Hya

V = 13.0;  Size 2.3'x0.5';  PA = 105°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 or 4:1 WNW-ESE, between 1.0-1.5' in length, brighter middle, low surface brightness (though viewed

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 625 = LM(S) 392 at the Leander McCormick Observatory on 11 Jan 1888.  He recorded it as "elongated [in PA] 110°, dif."  There is nothing at his position (using the galaxy NGC 3335 as the reference object), but Harold Corwin found that "Muller's RA offset from NGC 3335 has the wrong sign in the big 1893 Leander McCormick list of micrometric observations. Rather than being 3 minutes 3.6 seconds west of NGC 3335, it is that distance east."  Once corrected, his offset points directly to ESO 501-080.

 

HyperLEDA identifies this galaxy as NGC 3355 (see that number, which is probably lost) and has no listing for IC 625.  NED and SIMBAD have the correct identification.

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IC 626 = MCG -01-27-028 = PGC 31501

10 36 57.1 -07 01 26; Sex

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 137°

 

14.5" (4/12/21): at 158x and 226x; very faint, fairly small, diffuse, roundish, 30" diameter, only a slightly brighter nucleus.  Required care and averted vision in first identifying in the field.  IC 630 is 25' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 626 = J. 2-687, along with IC 630, on 3 May 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 627 = MCG +00-27-032 = CGCG 009-087 = PGC 31543

10 37 19.9 -03 21 28; Sex

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x: fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, pretty even surface brightness, well defined halo.  Three mag 10-10.5 stars are 8' NE, 8' ENE and 6' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 627 = J. 2-688 on 3 May 1893.  He described it as "faint, small, poorly defined, looks a bit grainy."

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IC 628 = UGC 5780 = MCG +01-27-022 = CGCG 037-096 = PGC 31567

10 37 36.2 +05 36 13; Sex

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  PA = 119°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly small, round, low even surface brightness, 30" diameter. A mag 11.3 star is 1.5' S.  Forms a pair with UGC 5779 just 1.7' NNW.  The two galaxies are member of a group (USGC U314 at z = .028.) that includes NGC 3326 and IC 634.  Situated 18' SW of STF 1457 = 7.7/8.2 at 1.8".

 

UGC 5779 appeared extremely faint and required averted to glimpse. ~0.3'x0.1' NW-SE (central region only).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 628 = J. 1-182 on 18 May 1892.  He noted "very faint, very small, irregular form with a slightly brighter middle."

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IC 629 = NGC 3312 = ESO 501-043 = MCG -04-25-039 = LGG 210-002 = PGC 31513

10 37 02.5 -27 33 55; Hya

V = 11.9;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3312.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 629 = Big. 158 on 26 Feb 1887.  His position matches NGC 3312, discovered by John Herschel in 1835.  Apparently neither Bigourdan nor Dreyer questioned the equivalence of IC 629 with NGC 3312, though there is no doubt.

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IC 630 = Mrk 1259 = MCG -01-27-029 = PGC 31636

10 38 33.6 -07 10 14; Sex

V = 12.0;  Size 1.2'x1.2'

 

14.5" (4/12/21 and 4/10/21): at 158x; fairly faint, small, round, 20" glow just 45" NE of mag 7.8 HD 92200, which significantly compromised the view.  Good view at 226x, which clearly showed a 25" halo surrounding a sharp stellar nucleus that mimicked a superposed star.  IC 626 lies 25' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 630 = J. 2-689, along with IC 626 and IC 631, on 3 May 1893.

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IC 632 = UGC 5792 = MCG +00-27-035 = PGC 31673

10 39 11.9 -00 24 35; Sex

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30°

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', weak concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' NE.  Located 13' SSW of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 632 = J. 2-691, along with IC 633, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 633 = UGC 5796 = MCG +00-27-037 = PGC 31691

10 39 24.1 -00 23 22; Sex

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 102°

 

17.5" (3/22/96): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1.0' NNE of center.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' SW.  Located 11' S of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 633 = J. 2-692, along with IC 632, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 634 = UGC 5811 = CGCG 037-111 = PGC 31799

10 40 54.9 +05 59 31; Sex

V = 14.5;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  PA = 116°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x; very faint, fairly small, low surface brightness, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, ~0.6'x0.2'.  A mag 15.4 star is close ESE, in the direction of the major axis.  About 10' S is a distinctive string of stars oriented NW-SE and about 9' in length.  The end stars are mag 9.6 and 10.6.  Member of a group (USGC U314) that includes NGC 3326 and IC 628 at z = .028.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 634 = J. 2-693 on 7 Apr 1893.  He recorded "very faint, little extended, without condensation, granular." His position is accurate.

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IC 635 = UGC 5821 = MCG +03-27-069 = CGCG 094-102 = PGC 31858

10 41 45.3 +15 38 36; Leo

V = 14.3;  Size 1.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 6°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, very thin streak N-S, 0.8'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 2' W and three mag 14-15 stars in a thin triangle (two are collinear with the galaxy) are ~4' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 635 = J. 2-694 on 15 Jan 1894.  He recorded "faint, small, slightly elongated, 30" diameter, gradually condensed."  His position is at the south edge of the galaxy.

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IC 636 = UGC 5824 = MCG +01-27-028 = CGCG 037-121 = PGC 31867

10 41 50.6 +04 19 51; Sex

V = 14.2;  Size 0.95'x0.4';  PA = 49°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3', brighter core.  Located 2' N of mag 8.6 HD 92623, which detracts from viewing.  A small trio of stars is close SW (SLE 587 = 12.8/14.0/14.7 at 22"/15").

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 636 = J. 2-695 on 7 Apr 1893.  He recorded "very faint, very small, poorly defined, mottled."

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IC 637 = CGCG 094-107 = PGC 31900

10 42 21.9 +15 21 35; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.75'x0.5'

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 25" diameter. A mag 14.8 star is just off the NE side, 33" from center.  An evenly separated group of five mag 12.5-13 stars is mainly south (closest is a mag 12.8 star 1.4' SW).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 637 = J. 2-696 on 15 Jan 1894.  He recorded "faint, very small, poorly defined.  On a straight line with the comparison star and two other stars."  His position is accurate.

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IC 638 = Mrk 632 = CGCG 094-117 = PGC 31988

10 43 48.0 +15 53 42; Leo

V = 14.9;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 2°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x; extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated, 0.3' diameter, very low surface brightness.  A mag 10.2 star is 2.5' W with a group of fainter stars to its west.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 638 = J. 2-697 on 16 Dec 1893.  He recorded "faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, without condensation."  His position is accurate.

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IC 639 = MCG +03-28-007 = CGCG 095-016 = PGC 32129

10 45 52.0 +16 55 50; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  PA = 0°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 226x and 260x; between faint and fairly faint; elongated ~2:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.3', locw pretty even surface brightness.  Irregular shape, appears to taper more on the north end (verified later on the SDSS).  Located 27' SW of NGC 3370.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 639 = Sw. 7-14 on 12 Apr 1888 and reported "eF; S; vE in meridian [N-S]; * 10 mag. 5' nf.  His position is within 1' of CGCG 095-016 = PGC 32129 and his comment "vE in meridian" matches.  The mag 10 star is 3' NNE.

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IC 642 = UGC 5905 = MCG +03-28-010 = CGCG 095-022 = PGC 32278

10 48 08.1 +18 11 19; Leo

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.3'

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly out of round, 50" diameter, contains a bright core that increases to a relatively faint stellar nucleus.  Situated in a sparce star field.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 642 = Sw. 7-15 on 12 Apr 1888 and reported "vF; pS; lE; forms a curve with 2 st. f[ollowing]."  His RA is 9 seconds too large, but the description fits and the ID is certain.

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IC 643 = CGCG 066-030 = PGC 32392

10 49 27.2 +12 12 04; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  PA = 73°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; fairly faint, bright core with faint extensions that increase the size to 50"x 15".  A mag 11.4 star is 3.5' SW.   Located 20' WSW of mag 8 HD 93928. IC 648 is less than 4' ENE of this star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 643 = J. 1-183 on 31 Mar 1892.  He described it as "quite faint, small, elongated along the meridian [N-S], slightly brighter in the middle."  His position is at the east edge of this galaxy.

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IC 644 = NGC 3398 = UGC 5954 = MCG +09-18-038 = CGCG 267-018 = PGC 32564

10 51 31.5 +55 23 27; UMa

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 78°

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brighter of a pair of galaxies oriented N-S.  NGC 3398 is a faint, narrow edge-on streak 4:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.25'.  IC 646, 4.6' NNE, is very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Located 4.7' NW of mag 8.1 SAO 27802.

 

Some catalogues refer to this galaxy as IC 644.  UGC 5976 (identified as NGC 3398 in CGCG and UGC) lies 13' NNE (see observation).

 

Lewis Swift found IC 644 = Sw. 9-24 on 8 May 1890 and reported "eeeF; pS; lE; B * sf; sp of 2."  His position is ~1' E of UGC 5954 and the description fits so the identification is certain.  This galaxy was discovered by William Herschel on 17 Apr 1789 and catalogued as H. III-792 (later NGC 3398).  The MCG misidentifies +09-18-041 as IC 644.  UGC, CGCG and RC3 all label this galaxy IC 644, but not as equivalent to NGC 3398.  See NGC 3398 for more.

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IC 646 = MCG +09-18-039 = CGCG 267-019 = PGC 32568

10 51 35.2 +55 27 57; UMa

V = 14.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3398 4.6' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 646 = Sw. 9-25 on 8 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nf of 2 [with IC 644 = NGC 3398]."  Swift's RA is 12 seconds too large.  PGC and RC3 (as well as Megastar) misidentify IC 646 as NGC 3398.  See NGC 3398 for more.

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IC 647 = LEDA 946616

10 50 34.4 -12 51 16; Hya

Size 0.3'x0.2';  PA = 62°

 

18" (3/29/03): at 300x this tiny companion to NGC 3411 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  Located 2.1' ESE of NGC 3411.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 647 = J. 1-184 on 21 Apr 1892 and noted it was distinct from NGC 3411.  The HyperLeda listing for PGC 946616 doesn't include IC 647 as an alias.

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IC 648 = MCG +02-28-017 = CGCG 066-040 = PGC 32522

10 51 00.3 +12 17 15; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 159°

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; fairly faint, elongated 3:2 N-S, at most 30" major axis, contains a very small brighter core.  A mag 15 star is at the N edge, just 12" from center.  Situated 3.8' ENE of mag 8.1 HD 93928.  IC 643 lies 23' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 648 = J. 1-185 on 31 Mar 1892.  He recorded "extremely faint, round, 15" diameter,very faint star involved [or stellar nucleus].  Difficult."

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IC 649 = MCG +00-28-019 = CGCG 010-034 = PGC 32506

10 50 52.1 +01 09 50; Sex

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; faint, small, low surface brightness, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 ~N-S (a fainter companion is attached at the S end), ~0.4' diameter.  A mag 13.5 star is also off the SW edge [30" from center].  Located 22' WNW of mag 6.4 HD 94180.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 649 = J. 2-699 on 11 Mar 1893.  He recorded "faint, small, poorly defined, with slight condensation.  Following and north of a mag 10.5 star."

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IC 650 = LEDA 170094

10 50 40.6 -13 26 31; Hya

Size 0.9'x0.7'

 

24" (2/15/23 and 4/15/23): at 327x; very faint, fairly small, round, 25"-30" diameter, diffuse, low surface brightness.  Two mag 9.8 stars (2' apart) are 2.5' WNW and 4.4' W.  A wide pair of mag 14.1/14.6 stars is ~2' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 650 = J. 1-186 on 21 Apr 1892.  His position matches PGC 170094 although LEDA and SIMBAD do not identify this galaxy as IC 650.  NED has the correct identification.

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IC 651 = UGC 5956 = MCG +00-28-020 = CGCG 010-035 = Ark 258 = CIG 444 = PGC 32517

10 50 58.4 -02 09 01; Sex

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (3/31/22): at 226x and 327x; relatively bright for an IC galaxy, irregularly round (flattened on one side?), very little concentration, 35" to 40" diameter.  A mag 12.3 star is 2.4' ESE and a mag 9.7 star is 6' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 651 = J. 2-700 on 21 Mar 1893.  Described as "fairly bright, round, about 40" diameter, with a rather diffuse central core, looks grainy".  The RA in the IC is 10 seconds too small.

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IC 652 = NGC 3421 = MCG -02-28-013 = PGC 32514

10 50 57.6 -12 26 55; Hya

V = 13.7;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 175°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3421.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 652 = J. 1-187 on 19 Apr 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his offset star.  His corrected position matches NGC 3421, although the NGC position from Common is also poor (13' too far N).

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IC 653 = UGC 5985 = MCG +00-28-022 = CGCG 010-039 = LGG 205-009 = PGC 32611

10 52 06.8 -00 33 38; Leo

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  PA = 55°

 

24" (2/15/23): at 327x; fairly faint, oval ~2:1 SW-NE, ~1.0'x0.5', broad and very weak concentration.  Forms the northern vertex of a triangle with a mag 12.8 star 2.5' WSW and a mag 13.5 star is 1.8' S.  Located 23' SSW of mag 6.3 HD 94237.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 653 = J. 2-701 on 10 Apr 1893.  The IC position is on the south edge of the galaxy.

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IC 654 = MCG -02-28-018 = PGC 32716

10 53 50.4 -11 43 32; Crt

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  PA = 126°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; very faint, diffuse, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 NW-SE, ~40"x25", slightly brighter middle.  A mag 11.3 star is 3' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 654 = J. 1-188 on 21 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 655 = CGCG 010-042 = PGC 32758

10 54 22.2 -00 21 54; Leo

V = 14.7;  Size 1.0'x0.25';  PA = 48°

 

24" (2/15/23): at 327x; extremely faint, fairly small, possibly extended SW-NE, ~0.6' length, very low surface brightness with no core. Too faint to see the shape well, though viewed at the end of the night with tired eyes.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 655 = J. 1-189 on 22 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 656

10 55 07.9 +17 36 48; Leo

V = 14.9/15.5;  Size 12"

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x a 12" pair of mag 15 stars were resolved.  The SDSS shows a third fainter star, as well as a very faint galaxy (not seen).  Located 4.4' E of NGC 3457 = NGC 3460.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 656 on 15 Mar 1887 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  At his position is a triple star plus PGC 1537008, an extremely faint galaxy on the southeast side.  I think the galaxy is probably too faint too have been discovered visually by Bigourdan, but the stars certainly could have appeared nebulous.  Corwin notes that NGC 3467 = h793, observed by John Herschel and guest Francis Baily, *may* apply to IC 656 as the description "Stellar. 2 or 3 stars with a nebulous blur observed by Mr. Baily", applies better to IC 656 than to the fairly bright galaxy 4.4' W.  But the galaxy is close to Herschel's position and much brighter, of course.  See Harold Corwin's and Malcolm Thomson's IC notes.

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IC 657 = MCG -01-28-009 = PGC 32966

10 57 53.6 -04 54 18; Leo

Size 1.1'x0.4';  PA = 169°

 

24" (2/15/23 and 3/15/23): at 263x and 327x; very faint, requires averted vision and cannot hold steadily, elongated at least 2:1 N-S, ~40"x20", low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 657 = J. 2-702 on 18 May 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 658 = MCG +02-28-033 = CGCG 066-075 = PGC 33004

10 58 16.3 +08 14 30; Leo

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.65';  PA = 42°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x and 375x; fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-NE, 30" diameter, brighter core, stellar nucleus, well defined halo.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 658 = J. 2-703 on 19 Apr 1893.  His position is 1.8' N of CGCG 066-075 = PGC 33004  (error in offset star?).  Deep images reveal a long looping tidal tail to the east and a very diffuse one extending south from the west end.

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IC 659 = MCG -01-28-010 = PGC 32979

10 58 03.9 -06 15 38; Leo

Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 147°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; between faint and fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-SE, 25" diameter, weakly brighter nucleus. I could just hold this galaxy steadily with averted vision.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 659 = J. 2-704 on 4 May 1893.  His position is accurate.  The MCG fails to identify its MCG -01-28-010 as IC 659.  In addition, the MCG declinations for the MCG -01-28 field are 10' too far north.

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IC 660 = CGCG 010-048 = PGC 33017

10 58 26.7 +01 22 58; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 31°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; very faint, small, elongated at least 3:2 SW-NE, ~20"-24" in length. Member of the galaxy cluster AGC 1139.

 

CGCG 010-051, which lies 8' ENE, appeared very faint, small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.3'-0.4' diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 660 = J. 2-705, along with IC 661 and 662, on 11 Mar 1893.  His dec is 1' too far north.

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IC 661 = CGCG 010-050 = PGC 33051

10 58 51.5 +01 39 02; Leo

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 31°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 229x and 327x; very faint, small, round, 20" diameter, diffuse with a low even surface brightness.n  A mag 10.2 star is 3.6' NW and an 8th mag star is 5' NNW.  Member of the galaxy cluster AGC 1139.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 661 = J. 2-706, along with IC 660 and 662, on 11 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.  Megastar software misidenties nearby PGC 83407 (1.2' NNE) as IC 661.

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IC 662 = CGCG 010-056 = PGC 33091

10 59 20.5 +01 35 56; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.65'x0.5';  PA = 71°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; between very faint and faint, small, round, slightly elongated, at most 15" diameter. I wasn't able to hold this galaxy steadily. Member of the galaxy cluster AGC 1139.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 662 = J. 2-707, along with IC 660 and 661, on 11 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 663 = CGCG 066-087 = PGC 33182

11 00 37.3 +10 26 14; Psc

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 175°

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  This is the third brightest of four galaxies viewed in the core of AGC 1142.  Located 6.4' SW of NGC 3492, midway between a mag 10.5 star 3.2' N and a mag 13 star 2.2' S.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 663 = Sw. 10-18, along with IC 664, on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eeF; pS; R; triangle with 2 F st; 1st of 3; NGC 3492 in field."  Stephane Javelle independently found this galaxy again at the Nice Observatory on 1 Mar 1892 and reported it in list 1-190.

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IC 664 = MCG +02-28-042 = CGCG 066-091 = PGC 33191

11 00 45.3 +10 33 11; Psc

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/25/98): this is the second brightest of four viewed in AGC 1142, located 4.1' NW of NGC 3492.  Appeared faint, small, slightly elongated [SW-NE], 30" diameter, stellar nucleus at moments with direct vision.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 664 = Sw. 10-19 (along with IC 663) on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eF; pS; R; 2nd of 3; NGC 3492 near."  Stephane Javelle independently found it at the Nice Observatory on 22 Mar 1892.

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IC 665 = LEDA 170101

11 00 29.9 -13 52 01; Crt

Size 1.0'x0.35';  PA = 148°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x; between faint and fairly faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 25"-30" major axis, small brighter core/nucleus.  A mag 13.7 star is 1.3' SE and a mag 12.3 star is 3.5' SSW.  IC 659 is located 14' NNE of mag 5.9 HD 95314.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 665 = J. 2-708 on 13 May 1893.  His position is accurate.  LEDA doesn't identify its PGC 170101 as IC 665.

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IC 666 = CGCG 066-097 = Mrk 1276 = PGC 33232

11 01 14.8 +10 28 52; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Last and most difficult of four found in AGC 1142 and observation confused by a mag 15 star 40" following. Difficult to view both simultaneously.  Located 4.6' SE of NGC 3492.  Viewed hampered by hazy sky conditions due to smoke.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 666 = J. 1-192 = Sw. 10A-2 on 1 Apr 1892.  Lewis Swift independently found it two weeks later on 16 Apr 1892 and logged "eeF, vS, ee diff.  NGC 3492 near.  4th of 4."  Swift was credited first in the IC, though Javelle was first.

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IC 667 = CGCG 095-111 = PGC 33603

11 06 36.6 +15 05 19; Leo

V = 14.9;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x and 375x; faint, very small, roundish, stellar nucleus, at most 15" diameter.  A mag 11.6 star is 1.3' NW.  Situated on a line between a mag 8.9 star (HD 96344) 3' SSW and mag 7.4 HD 96373 6' NNE.  IC 668 lies 3' SSE and 1.5' to the E of HD 96344.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 667 = J. 2-709, along with IC 668, on 15 Jan 1894.  His position is accurate.  IC 667 is identified as a double system in the CGCG, though Javelle only resolved a single galaxy.

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IC 668 = MCG +03-28-059 = CGCG 095-112 = PGC 33613

11 06 39.6 +15 02 27; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 95°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 327x and 375x; between faint and fairly faint, oval 3:2 E-W, 25" across, faint stellar nucleus.  Situated just 1.5' E of mag 8.9 HD 96344.  A 10" pair of 15th mag stars is very close SE of HD 96344.  IC 667 lies 3' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 668 = J. 2-710, along with IC 667, on 15 Jan 1894.  His position is accurate.

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IC 669 = UGC 6174 = MCG +01-28-040 = CGCG 038-132 = PGC 33662

11 07 16.6 +06 18 09; Leo

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 167°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 375x; relatively bright with a fairly high surface brightness core and nucleus, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 30"x20".  A mag 15.5 star is off the NE edge [23" from the center].  Two 10th mag stars at 1' separation lie 3' to 4' N.  These are the brightest in a distinctive asterism of 7 stars near IC 669.  IC 670 lies 25' N.

 

14.5" (4/1/21): at 226x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 N-S, very small brighter nucleus, ~30" major axis.  A distinctive group of a half-dozen mag 10 to 13.5 stars is directly NE, including a string of 4 stars N-S.

 

David Todd discovered IC 669 = Todd 8 = J. 2-711 on 3 Dec 1877 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  He reported, "Object 'a' suspected -- it has a companion, [PA] = 25 [deg]."  Harold Corwin states, "The companion is a star, and both are shown in his sketch which accurately reflects the sky."

 

Stephane Javelle independently made a secure discovery on 7 Apr 1893 and measured an accurate position.  Javelle was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 670 = UGC 6178 = MCG +01-28-041 = CGCG 038-134 = PGC 33680

11 07 28.8 +06 42 51; Leo

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  PA = 65°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 375x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, very weak central condensation. Three stars are nearby: a mag 12.4 star 2' NE, a mag 14.3 star 2' S, and a mag 13.7 star 3' SE.  A brighter mag 7.7 star (HD 96419) is 9' WSW.  IC 669 lies 25' S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 670 = Spitaler 16 on 7 Mar 1891 with the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 671 = UGC 6180 = MCG +00-28-031 = CGCG 010-079 = PGC 33689

11 07 31.6 +00 46 59; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  PA = 24°

 

14.5" (4/1/21): at 182x and 226x, between faint and fairly faint, round, diffuse, nearly even surface brightness, 30" to 40" diameter.  Situated on a line between two mag 12 stars 5' NNE and 4' SSW. Located 34' SE of mag 7.0 HD 96274.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 671 = J. 2-712 on 11 Mar 1893.

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IC 673 = UGC 6200 = MCG +00-29-003 = CGCG 011-009 = PGC 33817

11 09 25.3 -00 05 52; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 158x and 224x; between faint and fairly faint, very elongated NNW-SSE, ~45"x18".  Easier to view at 158x and visible continuously once picked up in the field.  The extremely low surface brightness outer ring was not detected. A mag 9.6 star is 8' SE and a mag 12 star is 6' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 673 = J. 1-194 on 22 Apr 1892. The CGCG calls this galaxy IC 678, instead of IC 673.  The UGC didn't label its 6200 as IC 673.

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IC 674 = UGC 6221 = MCG +07-23-027 = CGCG 213-031 = PGC 33982

11 11 06.4 +43 37 59; UMa

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 120°

 

24" (4/13/18): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, ~30"x25", strong concentrated with a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  With careful viewing, very low surface brightness wings [spiral arms] were occasionally glimpsed extending NW-SE increasing the dimensions to very roughly 50"x25".  Three stars to the SSW are collinear with the galaxy; an 11th mag star 3.6' SSW, another 11th mag star 2.5' SSW with a 12th mag companion at ~10" separation.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 674 = Spitaler 36 on 24 May 1892 with the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His position is accurate.

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IC 676 = UGC 6245 = MCG +02-29-009 = CGCG 067-032 = PGC 34107

11 12 39.9 +09 03 21; Leo

V = 11.8;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 10°

 

18" (3/5/05): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.2'x0.8'.  Contains an elongated brighter core and brighter along the major axis [central bar].  At low power, collinear with a mag 10 star 9' WNW and a mag 10 star 14' ESE.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 676 = Sw. 10-20 on 8 Apr 1891.  The Swifts reported it as "vF; pS: lE; bet 2 distant stars."

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IC 677 = UGC 6262 = MCG +02-29-013 = PGC 34211

11 13 56.8 +12 18 04; Leo

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 158x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, ~45" length.  Using 226x, contains a small, brighter nucleus.  A mag 13.4 star is 2' S. Located 32' SSW of NGC 3593.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 677 = J. 1-195 on 1 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 678 = MCG +01-29-021 = CGCG 039-083 = PGC 34222

11 14 06.4 +06 34 38; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 144°

 

24" (3/15/23): at 375x; faint, small, slightly elongated, low surface brightness, 20" diameter. Two mag 15.1 and 15.2 stars are 2' NW and 3' NW, respectively.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 678 = J. 2-714 on 13 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.  The CGCG mislabels (typo) IC 673 = CGCG 011-009 as IC 678, but CGCG 039-083 is correctly labeled as IC 678.

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IC 679 = LEDA 170124

11 16 36.6 -13 58 20; Crt

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 125°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): identified using 158x as a very faint, very small soft glow.  At 226x it was fairly easy and could be held steadily. It appeared slightly elongated, even surface brightness, ~20"-24" diameter.  A mag 14.4 star is 1.1' SW.  IC 2668 lies 20' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 679 = J. 2-715 on 13 May 1893.  His position is accurate.  This galaxy does not have a CGCG, MCG or PGC designation and LEDA 170124 is not recognized as IC 679 in HyperLeda or SIMBAD, though NED has correct identification.

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IC 680 = MCG +00-29-012 = CGCG 011-047 = PGC 34520

11 17 54.7 -01 56 47; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 157°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 226x; very faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter. Required care to pick up with averted vision, but could hold steadily for several seconds once acquired.

 

UGC 6311, a face-on spiral, is 9' due south. It appeared very faint, round, evenly lit diffuse glow, 45" diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 680 = J. 2-716 on 7 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 681 = MCG -02-29-017 = PGC 34572

11 18 31.9 -12 08 25; Crt

V = 14.7;  Size 0.85'x0.4';  PA = 32°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x and 375x; very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25"x20", very diffuse, low even surface brightness. A mag 14.2 star is 1.5' SW.

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 226x; extremely faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"-30" diameter, low uniform surface brightness, required averted vision and mostly glimpsed.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 681 = J. 1-196 on 19 Apr 1892.

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IC 682 = NGC 3649 = UGC 6386 = MCG +03-29-038 = CGCG 096-036 = PGC 34883

11 22 14.8 +20 12 30; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3649.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 682 = Sw. 8-56 on 22 Apr 1889 and reported "eF; eS; R; vF * close np."  There is nothing at his position but 1 minute of RA is NGC 3649.  Arguing against this identification is there is no "vF * close np" of NGC 3649, but there is a very faint star at the south edge.  So, this identification is questionable.

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IC 683 = CGCG 039-138 = WBL 324-007 = PGC 34807

11 21 31.8 +02 45 07; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 175°

 

24" (5/20/20): at 375x; faint, small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter nucleus.  Can just hold continuously. Located 3.6' S of NGC 3644.

 

Forms a close pair with CGCG 039-134 1.3' WSW. This galaxy, though a magnitude fainter, is misidentified as IC 683 in many sources.  It appeared  extremely faint, very small, round, 15", only occasionally popped but verified.  Forms a pair with IC 683 1.3' ENE. 

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 683 = Big. 162 on 14 Apr 1888.  His position matches CGCG 039-138, but CGCG, UGC, PGC, HyperLEDA (and secondary sources such as MegaStar) misidentify CGCG 039-134 = PGC 34793 (just 1.3' WSW) as IC 683.  HyperLEDA labels CGCG 039-148 as IC 683E.

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IC 684 = NGC 3644 = UGC 6373 = MCG +01-29-037 = CGCG 039-139 = PGC 34814

11 21 32.9 +02 48 37; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 63°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3644.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 684 = Big. 163 on 14 Apr 1888 and recorded a "small nebula with a mag 12.8 situated in PA 214° at 0.5'." His position and description matches NGC 3644.  So, NGC 3644 = IC 684.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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IC 685 = UGC 6296? = MCG +03-29-021 = CGCG 096-020 = PGC 34419

11 16 51.1 +17 47 55; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  PA = 167°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, fairly low surface brightness, no core or zones, 1.0'x0.3'. A mag 12.5 star is 1.4' NE of center.  UGC 6296, identified here as IC 685, is situated 15' due S of NGC 3607.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 685 = Sw. 7-16 on 11 Apr 1888 and reported "eeF; pretty small; round; * near north following; NGC 3605, 7, 8 in field."  His position is 3.3' NNW of PGC 34871, the galaxy sometimes identified as IC 685.  A mag 15 star is close NE (by 35"), agreeing with his description.  But NGC 3605, 3607 and 3608, which he claimed were in the field, lie 5 minutes of time to the west and well outside his 33' field!  Malcolm Thomson first noticed this discrepancy and Harold Corwin followed up and found that UGC 6296, roughly 15' due south of the NGC trio, matched Swift's position, if he made a 5 minute error in time.  Also, a 12.5 mag star is 1.4' NE of UGC 6296, matching Swift's comment.  A discrepancy, though, is Swift called his object round, and UGC 6296 is quite elongated. Perhaps he just picked up the brighter core.

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IC 687 = MCG +08-21-032 = CGCG 242-033 = PGC 35029

11 24 17.3 +47 50 51; UMa

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (6/21/20): at 375x; nearly fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' W and another mag 14 star is 13' NW.  Observed 7 hours past the meridian at only 18° elevation.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 687 = Sw. 9-26 on 11 May 1890 and reported "eF; eS; R; stellar to Nu[cleus]; F * nr f; another susp. nr. p."  His position is a good match with CGCG 242-033 = PGC 35029, although the nearest faint star is close west and not east.

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IC 688 = KUG 1121-095 = LEDA 156572

11 23 40.2 -09 47 44; Crt

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  PA = 98°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): picked up at 158x (10mm ZAO).  At 226x, faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.3' diameter.  Although V = 14.4, the surface brightness is pretty decent and I could nearly hold it steadily.  Situated 20' due west of NGC 3672 and a member of its group (USGC S165 = LGG 235).

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 688 = LM(S) 418 on 9 Jan 1889 at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  This galaxy was measured a number of times by Muller and Stone and their micrometric position is accurate.  HyperLeda doesn't identify LEDA 156572 as IC 688, though NED has the correct identity.

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IC 689 = NGC 3661 = MCG -02-29-022 = PGC 34986

11 23 38.4 -13 49 51; Crt

V = 14.0;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 137°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3661.

 

Ormond Stone found IC 689 = LM(S) 421 on 1 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His micrometric offsets (#421 in the LM Southern Nebulae list) matches NGC 3661, although neither he nor Dreyer noticed the equivalent position. So, IC 689 = NGC 3661.

 

 

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IC 690 = LEDA 170138

11 24 20.6 -08 20 31; Crt

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  PA = 171°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): glimpsed while searching at 158x.  Increasing to 226x, it appeared very faint, thin streak 3:1 N-S, ~25" x 8".  Located 14' NW of mag 8.2 HD 99238 and 22' NNE of NGC 3660.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 690 = J. 2-718 on 13 May 1893.  His position is accurate, though as the galaxy is missing from the PGC, HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 170138 as IC 690.  The galaxy isn't labeled in Megastar.

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IC 691 = UGC 6447 = Mrk 169 = PGC 35206

11 26 44.4 +59 09 20; UMa

V = 13.9;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 150°

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, very small, bright core, slightly elongated.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 691 = Sw. 7-17 on 17 Apr 1888 and recorded "pF; pS; R; forms right angle with 2 st."  His position is 1.5' too far west (within his usual errors) and the description is a perfect match.

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IC 692 = UGC 6438 = MCG +02-29-027 = Ark 292 = PGC 35151

11 25 53.6 +09 59 14; Leo

V = 13.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 125°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): easily picked up at 158x. Increasing to 226x it appeared fairly faint, round, 25" to 30" diameter, increases broadly and steadily to the center.  Two mag 12.7 and 14 close SE are aligned and equidistant with the galaxy.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 692 = Spitaler 37, along with IC 696, 698 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at Wien University Observatory.  He reported "Faint, round nebula of 1/4' - 1/2' diameter; A mag 12 star stands 2' southeast."

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IC 693 = MCG -01-29-022 = PGC 35208

11 26 48.6 -05 00 15; Leo

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 90°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x and 375x; faint, small, roundish, 25" diameter, very small brighter nucleus. Can hold steadily with averted vision.  Sparse star field with a mag 12.4 star 3.4' ENE and some scattered fainter stars to the S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 693 = J. 2-719 on 18 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 694 = Arp 299 NED1 = VV 118c = MCG +10-17-002a = PGC 35325

11 28 27.3 +58 34 43; UMa

V = 15.8;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

48" (5/12/12): IC 694, roughly 1' NW of the interacting pair NGC 3690, was easily visible as a fairly faint, slightly elongated glow, 15"x12", weak concentration.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): this threshold object was barely glimpsed 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.  It was just visible momentarily as an extremely small knot with averted vision but observation verified several times.  This object is probably IC 694 although the identification is not 100% certain.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, returning to Parsontown from his studies at Trinity, discovered IC 694 = Sw. 10A-3 on 27 Jan 1852. He described an "appendage about one object diameter northwest [of NGC 3690]."  Lewis Swift apparently found this galaxy on 18 Apr 1892 and noted "vS, close D[ouble] with 3690, suspected with 132, verified with 200x.  His position is -7 seconds of RA, +30'' of Dec with respect to NGC 3690, close to PGC 35325, an extremely faint and small galaxy 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.

 

Modern catalogues apply IC 694 to one component of the brighter double system.  Despite the good match in position with PGC 35325, I feel it is more likely possible Swift saw the second component of NGC 3690, which is much more obvious in the eyepiece.

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IC 695 = LEDA 170143

11 27 58.3 -11 42 55; Crt

Size 0.9'x0.35';  PA = 85°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x; very faint, small, elongated E-W, very diffuse, low surface brightness, required averted vision. A 13th mag star is 1.7' NW. Located 32' SW of NGC 3704.

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 226x; marginally glimpsed and barely confirmed, but requires better conditions or a larger aperture for any details.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 695 = J. 1-197 on 21 Apr 1892.  His position matches LEDA 170143. This galaxy wasn't included in the original PGC and it isn't recognized as IC 695 in HyperLEDA or SIMBAD.

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IC 696 = UGC 6477 = MCG +02-29-034 = Holm 257a = PGC 35332

11 28 39.9 +09 05 55; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (5/3/11): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, fairly low surface brightness, weak concentration.  In a group of IC galaxies with much fainter IC 2857 2.3' W and slightly brighter IC 698 6' ENE.  This galaxy is a face-on Sc or Sd with a very small nucleus.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, only a weak concentration.  This is the 2nd brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 6.0' ENE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 696 = Spitaler 38, along with IC 698 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at Vienna University Observatory.  Spitaler missed nearby IC 2857, which was discovered later by Wolf on a photographic plate of the region.

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IC 697 = CGCG 011-106 = PGC 35327

11 28 34.5 -01 37 46; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 131°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 158x and 226x; faint, small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 20" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.  Located 11' NE mag 6.3 HD 99651.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 697 = J. 2-720 on 7 Apr 1893.

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IC 698 = UGC 6482 = MCG +02-29-035 = Holm 257b = PGC 35364

11 29 03.9 +09 06 42; Leo

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 147°

 

18" (5/3/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~35"x20", broad concentration to a brighter, elongated core that increases to a faint nucleus with direct vision.  Initially seen as slightly elongated, but then the outer extensions were noticed.  This is probably the highest surface brightness member of a 16' group of 6 IC galaxies including IC 696, 699, 2850, 2853 and 2857.  The nearest is IC 696, 6' WSW.  IC 698 is located 18.5' SW of NGC 3705.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, brighter core.  Brightest in the IC 698 group and 3rd of 4 brighter galaxies with IC 696 6.0' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 698 = Spitaler 39, along with IC 696 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 699 = UGC 6485 = MCG +02-29-036 = Holm 257d = PGC 35365

11 29 06.6 +08 59 18; Leo

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 12°

 

18" (5/3/11): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 40"x20".  The halo is broadly concentrated then increases suddenly to a small brighter nucleus.  Located 7.5' S of IC 698 in a small group of 6 IC galaxies (unrelated to nearby NGC 3692 and NGC 3705).  The SDSS image shows a very compact, bright nucleus surrounded by a smooth ring.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): faint, small, bright core, stellar nucleus, faint extensions SSW-NNE.  Fourth brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 7.5' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 699 = Spitaler 40, along with IC 696 and 698, on 31 Mar 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 700 = HCG 54A = UGC 6487 NED2 = VV 498 NED2 = Rose 27 NED2 = MCG +04-27-047 NED2 = UGC 126-067 NED2 = PGC 35382

11 29 15.3 +20 35 00; Leo

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 71°

 

48" (4/16/15): at 610x, the main (central) component of HCG 54 = Rose 27 appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, ~30"x18", fairly even surface brightness. The three fainter components flank HCG 54A and together nearly merge to create an irregular extended glow ~50"x18", bending to the north on the east end.

 

HCG 54B, at the southwest end, is faint to fairly faint (B = 16.2), very small, round, ~8"-10" diameter. This is the second brightest of the 4 members.  On the SDSS, HCG 54B appears as a very compact, bright blue knot just 15" SW of center of IC 700.

 

HCG 54C was easily seen as a faint (B = 17.2), small, round, 10" knot.  HCG 54C is squeezed between fainter HCG 54D and HCG 54A (18" NE of the center of HCG 54A).

 

HCG 54D was not noticed at 613x.  At 813x it appeared very faint (B = 18.5), round, only a 6" knot.  HCG 54D is the faintest member of the quartet and sits at the northeast end of the chain.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 1.0'x0.4', low (but probably irregular) surface brightness.  A mag 14 star lies 1' S. At a couple of moments there appeared to be an extremely faint "star" at the west edge (this is probably HCG 54B).  Located ~15' SE of HCG 53!

 

17.5" (4/1/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.4', even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' S of center.  Located 4.8' NE of a mag 10 star.  NGC 3697 (brightest in HCG 53) lies 14' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 700 = J. 1-198 on 28 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at Nice.  His position matches HCG 54A = UGC 6487.  Harold Corwin notes that "his description "Nearly round, about 40 arcsec in diameter, a little brighter toward the middle" suggests he saw at least the brightest three of the objects, blended into a single image."  HCG 54 is considered a post-merger of 2 or more galaxies.

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IC 701 = Arp 197 NED1 = VV 3a = UGC 6503 = MCG +04-27-051 = CGCG 126-074 = PGC 35494 = LEDA 86632

11 31 00.7 +20 28 08; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 105°

 

48" (5/12/12): at 488x, IC 701 = Arp 197 appeared fairly bright, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.3', contains a small bright core.  A very low surface brightness hazy plume extends to the NE about 30".  Occasionally VV 3b, an extremely faint hazy spot, was glimpsed at the northeast tip of the tail.  In Arp's class "galaxies with material ejected from nuclei".  CGCG 126-073, a thin edge-on described by Arp as a shred of IC 701, lies 2.5' SSW.  It appeared as a faint, extremely thin streak, 8:1 WNW-ESE, ~40"x5", fairly low surface brightness.  Situated very close west of a mag 13-14 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 701 = Sw. 8-57 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; 2 pB stars south following."

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IC 702 = LEDA 1051683

11 30 54.7 -04 55 19; Leo

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 130°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 226x; very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, low surface brightness.  HJ 2573, a pair of mag 10.3/10.5 star at 8", lies 15' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 702 = J. 2-721 on 18 May 1893.  His description reads "faint, very small, round, 20" in diameter, with a central core of mag 13.5".  HyperLeda doesn't recognize PGC 1051683 as IC 702.

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IC 705 = MCG +08-21-049 = CGCG 268-050 = PGC 35644

11 32 56.3 +50 14 31; UMa

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 34°

 

24" (6/21/20): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 25"x20", small brighter core, occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Surrounded by several 13th-14th mag stars.  UGC 6535 (very faint edge-on) lies 4.5' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 705 = Sw. 9-27 on 11 May 1890 and reported "eeF; vS; R."

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IC 706 = MCG -02-30-004 = PGC 35658

11 33 12.6 -13 20 17; Crt

Size 1.3'x0.2';  PA = 111°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x and 375x; pretty faint, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 40"x15", small brighter core.  A 10th mag star is 2' S and a 15th mag star is 50" SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 706 = J. 1-199 on 21 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 707 = UGC 6543 = MCG +04-27-064 = CGCG 126-091 = ARK 301 = KUG 1131+216A = PGC 35708

11 33 44.6 +21 22 48; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 0.65'x0.5';  PA = 4°

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 158x and 226x; fairly faint, round, 25"-30" diameter, fairly even surface brightness with at most weak concentration. Situated in a poor star field; the nearest brighter star is 9th mag (HD 100414) with a wide companion, located 13' NNW.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 707 in 1894 while searching in the region of Copeland's Septet.  His position is accurate.

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IC 708 = UGC 6549 = MCG +08-21-056 = PGC 35720 = Papillon Galaxy

11 33 59.2 +49 03 43; UMa

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 95°

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brightest member of the AGC 1314 cluster.  Fairly faint, slightly elongated, 0.8' diameter.  Fairly high surface brightness, well concentrated with a bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 709 2.7' SE.  Nearby are IC 712 8.2' E and IC 711 9.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 708 = Sw. 9-28 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eF; S; R.  1st of 4 [with IC 709, 711 and 712]."

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IC 709 = MCG +08-21-057 = CGCG 242-049 = PGC 35736

11 34 14.5 +49 02 35; UMa

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter core.  A mag 15 star is just 23" NW of center.  Located 2.7' SW of IC 708 in the core of AGC 1314.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 709 = Sw. 9-29 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R.  2nd of 4 [with IC 708, 711 and 712]."

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IC 710 = CGCG 126-098 = PGC 35750

11 34 27.4 +25 52 35 ; Leo

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 0°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 327x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.3', low but irregular surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 710 = J. 2-722 on 13 Apr 1893.

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IC 711 = MCG +08-21-062 = CGCG 242-053 = PGC 35780

11 34 46.6 +48 57 22; UMa

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.0' NE of a mag 14.5/15.5 double star in the core of AGC 1314. On the DSS the fainter "star" is a compact galaxy, IC 712 lies 7.3' N and brightest member IC 708 is 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 711 = Sw. 9-30 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; F * close sp.  3rd of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 712]."

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IC 712 = MCG +08-21-063 = CGCG 242-054 = PGC 35785

11 34 49.3 +49 04 39; UMa

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter.  Even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 1.9' SSW of mag 8.4 SAO 43812.  Located in the core of galaxy cluster AGC 1314 with IC 711 7.3' S and IC 709 6.1' SW and brightest member IC 708 8.2' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 712 = Sw. 9-31 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R; pB * nr nf.  4th of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 711]."

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IC 714 = NGC 3763 = MCG -02-30-009 = PGC 35907

11 36 30.3 -09 50 48; Crt

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 3763

 

Francis Leavenworth found IC 714 = LM(S) 430 on 25 Feb 1887.  He described it as "little extended 170°, gradually brighter middle nucleus."  His micrometric position with respect to Theta Crateris matches NGC 3763 = PGC 35907.  This galaxy was discovered by Andrew Common in 1880 and placed fairly accurately but neither Common nor Dreyer noticed the equivalence. So, NGC 3763 = IC 714.

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IC 717 = NGC 3779 = MCG -02-30-013 = PGC 36084

11 38 51.3 -10 35 01; Crt

V = 13.7;  Size 2.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 85°

 

See observing notes for NGC 3779.

 

Frank Muller found IC 717 = LM(S) 433 on 14 Feb 1888 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory. He described it as "1.0'x0.8', extended in pa 90°, dif."  With respect to NGC 3775, he measured an offset of +53.92 seconds in RA but no delta for declination.  Apparently he made a 30 second error as NGC 3779 follows by +24 seconds in RA.  His comment that the nebula was extended E-W seems to clinch the identification IC 717 = NGC 3779.

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3779 in 1860 with his 36" reflector.  With respect to NGC 3775, he noted "another [NGC 3779] 5' nf ".  Close to this offset is PGC 36084.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position that was repeated in the IC 2 notes.

 

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IC 718 = UGC 6626 = MCG +02-30-007 = CGCG 068-018 = PGC 36174

11 39 52.8 +08 52 28; Vir

V = 14.1;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 0°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 158x and 224x; very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, ~0.6'x0.4', very low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.6 star is 1.6' W and mag 9.0 HD 101279 is 8' NW.  IC 719 lies 10' NE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 718 = Spitaler 41 on 25 Mar 1892 with the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 719 = UGC 6633 = Ark 308 = MCG +02-30-008 = CGCG 068-021 = PGC 36205

11 40 18.5 +09 00 36; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 52°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 224x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, ~60"x20".  Contains a small, bright core/nucleus.  Fairly high surface brightness and surprisingly easy.  IC 718 lies 10' SW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 719 = Spitaler 42 on 24 Mar 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 720 = MCG +02-30-016 = CGCG 068-035 = KPG 298 = PGC 36333

11 42 22.3 +08 46 04; Vir

Size 1.1'x0.6'

 

28" (4/12/18): at 285x; fairly faint, fairly small, overall elongated ~2:1 N-S, ~0.8'x0.4'.  Resolved into two very small glows with merged outer halos [centers separated by 16"].  The northern galaxy is slightly larger and brighter, ~0.4' diameter, with a quasi-stellar nucleus.  The southern component appeared as a faint knot, ~15" diameter.

 

The IC 720 duo is a member of the small USGC U411 group (z = .02) with LEDA 3091447 4' N.   This tiny galaxy appeared very faint, round, 12" diameter, stellar nucleus.  Other members include CGCG 068-038 8' NE, IC 722 13.5' NNE and IC 724 20' NE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 720 = Spitaler 43 on 25 Mar 1892.  His position is a good match with this double system, though apparently he only saw a single object (likely the brighter northern galaxy).  The CGCG failed to identity CGCG 068-035 as IC 720.

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IC 722 = MCG +02-30-019 = CGCG 068-039 = PGC 36365

11 42 43.8 +08 58 27; Vir

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 76°

 

28" (4/12/18): at 285x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~35"x25", low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 2' NNE. Located 12.7' WNW of brighter IC 724 in a small group (USGC U411).

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 722 = Spitaler 44, along with IC 724, on 25 Mar 1892.  His position is poor because he misidentified his offset star according to Harold Corwin, but his description clearly pins down the correct galaxies.

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IC 724 = UGC 6695 = MCG +02-30-022 = CGCG 068-045 = PGC 36450

11 43 34.7 +08 56 33; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 2.3'x0.9';  PA = 60°

 

28" (4/12/18): at 285x; fairly bright, fairly large, oval 5:2 SW-NE, ~1.3'x0.5'.  Contains a prominent elongated core and very small bright nucleus.

 

IC 724 is the brightest in a small group (USGC U411) with IC 722 12.7' WNW. CGCG 068-038, located 13.5' WSW, appeared faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 724 = Spitaler 45, along with IC 722, on 25 Mar 1892.  His position is poor because he misidentified his offset star according to Harold Corwin, but his description clearly pins down the correct galaxies.

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IC 727 = UGC 6715 = MCG +02-30-025 = CGCG 068-050 = FGC 1300 = PGC 36536

11 44 28.6 +10 47 02; Leo

V = 14.1;  Size 1.6'x0.25';  PA = 161°

 

24" (5/20/20): at 225x and 375x; very faint, very thin low surface brightness streak, ~8:1 NNW-SSE, brighter core, ~0.8'x0.1'. A mag 8 star (HD 101932) is 9' SW.  NGC 3839 lies 8.4' W.  Member of the NGC 3817-3839 group (USGC U412), which includes HCG 58.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 727 = J. 1-201 on 23 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 730 = NGC 3849 = MCG +01-30-013 = CGCG 040-040 = Todd 10 = PGC 36658

11 45 35.2 +03 13 54; Vir

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 35°

 

24" (4/15/23): at 229x and 375x; fairly faint, small, elongated at least 3:2 SW-NE, 20"-24" length

 

48" (4/16/15): at 488x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 or 5:3 SW-NE, 0.5'x0.3', small bright core, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 16.3 star is off the southeast side [27" from center].  An extremely faint "star" was noted off the northwest side [25" from center].  After later checking the SDSS, I discovered this is a compact galaxy (SDSS J114534.52+031417.8) with V = 17.8.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25" diameter, no concentration.  Visible steadily with direct vision.  A mag 15 star lies 1.6' SSW. This galaxy is identified as IC 730 (good position from Javelle) in several sources.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 730 = J. 2-728 on 22 Mar 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position matches CGCG 040-040.  This galaxy was first discovered by David Todd on 11 Feb 1878 in his search for trans-Neptunian planets with the 26-inch refractor at the Naval Observatory and reported as Todd 10 (later NGC 3849).  Todd noted a "large and nebulous" object with a star 2' in PA ~210° (SSW).  There is nothing at his rough position, but using Todd's discovery sketch, Harold Corwin identified Todd 10 as CGCG 040-040.  So, IC 730 = NGC 3849.

 

Several catalogues, as well as HyperLEDA, label this galaxy as IC 730 only due to the poor NGC position.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 731 = MCG +08-21-096 = CGCG 242-079 = CGCG 243-003 = PGC 36626 = LEDA 2346923

11 45 18.1 +49 34 14; UMa

V = 15.4;  Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 83°

 

24" (5/20/20): very faint, small, round, low surface brightness, no distinct shape (too faint), ~20" diameter.  UGC 6726, situated 9' NNW, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 35"x25", very small brighter nucleus.

 

The UGC galaxy is probably more likely to be Swift's IC 731 than MCG +08-21-096 based on visibility, but all modern sources identify as IC 731 as it is a better match in position.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 731 = Sw. 9-32 on 11 May 1890 and reported "vF; vS; R."  There is nothing at his position but 43 seconds of RA west is MCG +08-21-096, which most sources identify as IC 731, though not MCG.  This galaxy is faint enough that Swift would have likely called it "eeF" or even "eeeF".

 

Yann Pothier proposed that IC 731 may be UGC 6726, which is a much brighter galaxy, but off by +52 seconds in RA and -9 arcminutes in Dec.  Corwin lists this as a slightly more likely possibility (colons).  Finally, IC 731 could be a duplicate of NGC 3870, which lies 38 arcminutes due north of Swift's position.  So, there are no less than 3 reasonable identities, though is no persuasive candidate. See Corwin's notes for more.

 

Based on the low surface brightness and small size of MCG +08-21-096, I feel Swift would have described this galaxy as "eeF" instead of "vF".  So, I believe that UGC 6726 is more likely the correct object despite being off in both RA and Dec.

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IC 732 = MCG +04-28-050 = CGCG 127-051 = Holm 290a = Holm 290b = PGC 36688 = LEDA 83488

11 45 59.8 +20 26 20; Leo

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5+0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (2/20/88): very faint, very small, very elongated.  Located 4' NW of brighter NGC 3884 in AGC 1367.  This system is a contact pair (not resolved).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 732 = Big. 165 on 29 Mar 1886.  Harold Corwin notes there are two galaxies very near Bigourdan's position and he may have glimpsed both of them.

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IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-001 = PGC 36853

11 48 20.1 +12 42 59; Leo

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; HCG 59B is moderately bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, contains a small bright nucleus.  PGC 1415034 (not a member of HCG 59, but part of the group) lies 0.8' NW.  Using 697x, this 17.5-18 magnitude companion appeared extremely faint and small, very low surface brightness.  It was visible only ~1/3 of the time.  Slightly brighter IC 737 = HCG 59A lies 1.9' ENE.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): HCG 59B is the fainter of two visible in HCG 59 and located 1.9' WSW of IC 737 = HCG 59A.  Very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  With averted vision, the halo is closer to 30" (similar to IC 736) but the surface brightness is slightly lower.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 736 = J. 1-203, along with IC 737, on 23 Apr 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position correspond with HCG 59B = CGCG 068-068 and HCG 59A = CGCG 068-070, respectively.  Several catalogues (including RC3, MCG and CGCG) misidentify HCG 59A as IC 736 and HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 = CGCG 068-072 as IC 737.  When I took a look at this group, this immediately seemed odd as the brightest pair of galaxies are clearly HCG 59A and HCG 59B and I missed HCG 59D.  The correct identifications are

 

IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = PGC 36853

IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = PGC 36861

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IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-002 = PGC 36861

11 48 27.5 +12 43 38; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; moderately bright, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0. 4', contains a small bright core.  IC 737 = HCG 59A is the brightest member of HCG 59 with IC 736 = HCG 59B 1.9' WSW, MCG +02-30-040 = HCG 59D 0.8' E, CGCG 068-073 = HCG 59C 1.8' SE and HCG 59E 2.7' NW.  A mag 13.5-14 star is 1.4' E.

 

HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 (often misidentified as IC 737) is faint, fairly small, diffuse, no core or zones, very low surface brightness.  It is squeezed between HCG 59A 0.8' W and a mag 13.5-14 star 0.6' SE.  HCG 59C is the largest member of the quintet.  It appeared fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, ~48"x16", slightly brighter core.  HCG 59E is the faintest in the quintet and appeared very faint, small, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 SW-NE, ~15"x8", even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~WNW-ESE (difficult to pin down orientation).  Appears slightly brighter than similar HCG 59B 1.9' WSW.  A mag 13.5 star follows by 1.3'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 737 = J. 1-204, along with IC 736, on 23 Apr 1892.  See identification notes for IC 736.

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IC 740 = NGC 3913 = UGC 6813 = MCG +09-20-001 = CGCG 268-092 = CGCG 269-004 = PGC 37024

11 50 38.9 +55 21 13; UMa

V = 12.6;  Size 2.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.5

 

See observing notes for NGC 3913.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 740 = Sw. 9-33 on 8 May 1890 and reported "eeF; pL; iR; 3916-3921 in field."  This galaxy was discovered by William Herschel in 1789.  Both positions are close enough to each other, that I'm surprised neither Swift nor Dreyer noted the possible equivalence.

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IC 742 = UGC 6822 = MCG +04-28-068 = CGCG 127-073 = PGC 37056

11 51 02.3 +20 47 59; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (5/20/20): at 225x and 375x; faint, small, round, low surface brightness, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 10.8 star is 4.4' SW.

 

24" (6/3/19): at 260x; faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness with just a slightly brighter nucleus.  Located 27' SW of NGC 3940 and 26' NW of NGC 3937.  Member of the USGC U427 group, which includes NGCs 3910, 3919, 3925, 3929, 3937, 3940, 3943, 3946, 3947, 3954.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 742 = Sw. 8-60 on 22 Apr 1889 and reported "eeeF; pS; R; pB * sp".  His position is 6 seconds of RA too far west (within his usual errors) and the description matches.

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IC 749 = UGC 6962 = MCG +07-25-008 = KTG 40A = Holm 313a = PGC 37692

11 58 34.0 +42 44 03; UMa

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 150°

 

24" (5/11/13): moderately bright, large, slightly elongated ~N-S, 1.3'x1.1', diffuse appearance with an ill-defined halo due to low surface brightness around periphery.  But the surface brightness is irregular or mottled with a very small, slightly brighter nucleus and an impression of spiral structure.  Forms a contrasting pair with IC 750 3.4' ESE.  The SDSS image resolves the spiral arms into numerous blue HII regions and that probably contributed to the visual impression of mottling. Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 3.1' SW.  Member of the NGC 4111 group.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse glow, no central brightening, slightly elongated NNW-SSE.  Forms a pretty pair with IC 750 3.3' E.  Located 3.0' NE of mag 8.6 SAO 43979.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 749 = Spitaler 46, along with IC 750, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at the Vienna Observatory. A month later he found (or first measured) IC 751 and 752 (just south).

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IC 750 = UGC 6973 = MCG +07-25-010 = KTG 40B = Holm 313b = LGG 269-003 = PGC 37719

11 58 52.2 +42 43 21; UMa

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 41°

 

24" (5/11/13): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.5', well concentrated with a bright, elongated core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 16 star lies 1' S of center.  Forms an usual 3.4' pair with IC 749, which is a Sc face-on with a much lower surface brightness.  Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 5.5' WSW.  IC 751 lies 9' due S.  Member of the NGC 4111 group = LGG 269.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, brighter along the major axis.  Higher surface brightness than IC 749 3.3' W.  Mag 8.6 SAO 43979 lies 5.6' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 750 = Spitaler 47, along with IC 749, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 751 = UGC 6972 = MCG +07-25-011 = CGCG 215-011 = KTG 40C = PGC 37721

11 58 52.6 +42 34 13; UMa

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30°

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, 40"x12".  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 752 4.1' E.  Brighter IC 749 and IC 750 lie 9' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 751 = Spitaler 48, along with IC 752, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 752 = CGCG 215-014 = PGC 37747

11 59 15.0 +42 34 01; UMa

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45'

 

24" (5/11/13): faint to fairly faint, small, round, fairly low even surface brightness, 20" diameter.  Fainter of a pair with IC 751 4.1' W.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 752 = Spitaler 49, along with IC 751, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 754 = UGC 6984 = MCG +00-31-013 = CGCG 013-025 = PGC 37757

11 59 23.6 -01 39 16; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 0.95'x0.75';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 19°

 

14.5" (4/10/21): at 226x; between faint and fairly faint, round, 0.4' diameter, very small brighter nucleus.  Located just 0.8' E of a mag 10.6 star and a slightly brighter mag 10.0 star is 3' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 754 = J. 2-739 on 22 Mar 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 755 = NGC 4019 = UGC 7001 = MCG +02-31-014 = CGCG 069-024 = FGC 1347 = PGC 37912

12 01 10.3 +14 06 16; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 2.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 145°

 

24" (5/20/20): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, excellent very thin edge-on!  Extended ~10:1 NW-SE, ~80"x8", bright core, tapers at tips.  A mag 10.1 star is 5.6' SSE.

 

18" (4/9/05): fairly faint, edge-on NW-SE, 1.0'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 5.5' SE and 2' ENE of this star is CGCG 069-029.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 755 = Sw. 8-61 on 20 Apr 1889 and reported "eeF; S; E; bet. the n 2 of 3 st. forming a large triangle."  His position and description matches this edge-on.  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 4019, discovered by John Herschel, as IC 755, though this galaxy is 2 min 16 sec of RA east and 6' south of Herschel's position.  But there is a mag 10 star 5.5' southeast matching his description.  Still, this identification is uncertain.

 

 

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IC 757 = NGC 4068 = UGC 7047 = MCG +09-20-079 = CGCG 269-031 = PGC 38148

12 04 00.8 +52 35 18; UMa

V = 12.5;  Size 3.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 30°

 

See observing notes for NGC 4068.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 757 = Big. 166 on 11 Mar 1886.  According to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan misidentified a star as NGC 4068 on two nights and "rediscovered" NGC 4068 on 11 Mar 1886, though reversed the direction of his offsets.  Dreyer assumed Big. 166 was new, and it was catalogued again as IC 757.  But once the error is corrected, IC 757 = NGC 4068.

 

NED and SIMBAD equate IC 757 with NGC 4068, though CGCG, UGC, MCG and PGC and SIMBAD only gave the single identity NGC 4068.

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IC 758 = UGC 7056 = CGCG 315- 009 = MCG +11-15-014 = CGCG 315-009 = LGG 266-003 = PGC 38173

12 04 11.9 +62 30 19; UMa

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 9°

 

24" (5/20/20): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately to fairly large, round, 1.2' diameter?, low surface brightness, slightly brighter core that occasionally appears as a bar oriented SW-NE.  Located 7' E of a mag 9.4 star.

 

24" (6/3/19): at 200x; fairly faint, moderately large, over 1' diameter, brighter elongated core, subtle structure in the halo with slightly brighter sections or arcs.  Located 7' E of mag 9.4 SAO 15695 and 28' SSW of mag 6.1 HD 105043.  Member of a group (LGG 266) with brightest members NGC 4036 and NGC 4041.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 758 = Sw. 7-18 on 17 Apr 1888 and reported "eeF; pS; R; bet. 2 distant st., one a coarse D[ouble]; ee diff."  The "coarse D[ouble star]" is ~5' N.  CGCG didn't label CGCG 315-009 as IC 758.  IC 758 is called IC 757 in the RC1.

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IC 760 = ESO 440-052 = MCG -05-29-010 = LGG 271-006 = PGC 38345

12 05 53.5 -29 17 32; Hya

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 148°

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.3', broad concentration to a slightly bulging center.  A group of faint stars lies ~5' N and another group with a couple of brighter mag 11 stars is SW.  A faint 20" pair of mag 14/15 stars is 1.5' SW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 760 = LM(S) 464 on 3 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His description reads "rr (highly resolved?), brighter in the middle, stellar nucleus", with a magnitude of 15.0 and a diameter of 0.2'.  The discovery was published in the observatory's catalogue of Southern Nebulae (Vol 1, Part 6, 1893).  Howe, in his visual survey of IC objects, noted there was "either a star of mag 14 at 150°, or the nebula is elongated in that direction."  The latter is correct.  DeLisle Stewart found this galaxy again on an Arequipa plate in 1899, measured the position, and noted "F, S, R. bM."

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IC 762 = MCG +04-29-034 = CGCG 128-037 = KUG 1205+260 = PGC 38532

12 08 12.0 +25 45 26; Com

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 144°

 

24" (6/3/19): at 322x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 30"x24", very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 2.5' SE.  Forms a pair with IC 763 3.4' N.  Member of the USGC U458 group at 325 million l.y.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 762 = J. 2-741, along with IC 763, on 13 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 763 = MCG +04-29-035 = CGCG 128-038 = PGC 38525

12 08 15.3 +25 48 41; Com

Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 86°

 

24" (6/3/19): at 322x; between faint and fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, ~20"x15".  A mag 14.8 star is 40" NE.  Forms a pair (same redshift) as slightly brighter IC 762 3.4' SSW.  Member of the USGC U458 group at 325 million l.y.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 763 = J. 2-742, along with IC 762, on 13 Apr 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 767 = Mrk 760 = MCG +02-31-042 = CGCG 069-073 = PGC 38792

12 11 02.7 +12 06 14; Vir

V = 13.7;  Size 0.85'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 75°

 

24" (6/3/19): at 322x; almost moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~25"x20", fairly high surface brightness, very small brighter nucleus that increases to an occasional stellar nucleus.  IC 768 lies 11' ENE.  Member of the USGC U472 group

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 767 = J. 1-209, along with IC 768 and IC 769, on 1 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 768 = UGC 7192 = MCG +02-31-044 = CGCG 069-075 = PGC 38848

12 11 47.6 +12 08 37; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 112°

 

24" (6/3/19): at 322x; faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, low but uneven surface brightness, slightly brighter elongated core, ~0.6'x0.3'.  A mag 11.3 star is 1.5' SE.  IC 767 lies 11' WSW and IC 769 is 11' ESE.  IC 768 lies in the background (twice the redshift).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 768 = J. 1-210, along with IC 767 and IC 769, on 1 Apr 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 769 = UGC 7209 = MCG +02-31-047 = CGCG 069-083 = LGG 285-005 = PGC 38916

12 12 32.3 +12 07 26; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 2.5'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 40°

 

24" (6/3/19): at 322x; fairly faint, fairly large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 1.5'x1.0', very diffuse, broad weak concentration with an elongated core or bar.  IC 768 lies 11' W.  Member of LGG 285, a large Virgo group with brightest member NGC 4168.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 769 = Spitaler 19 = J. 1-211 on 24 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.  Javelle rediscovered this galaxy the following year on April 1, 1892 along with discoveries of IC 767 and 768.

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IC 771 = MCG +02-31-067 = CGCG 069-105 = KUG 1212+134 = Holm 353d = PGC 39176

12 15 13.2 +13 11 04; Vir

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 92°

 

48" (4/27/22): at 488x; moderately bright, slightly elongated 4:3 E-W, ~40"x30", contains a small bright core.  A mag 16 star is 0.5' W.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 4216 and 10' due N of NGC 4206.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 771 on 1 Apr 1891 while measuring the position of NGC 4193 and NGC 4216.  He noted that 3' north of his comparison star (HD 106526) was a small, faint, round nebula.

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IC 773 = MCG +01-31-044 = CGCG 041-073 = PGC 39493

12 18 08.1 +06 08 22; Vir

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 0°

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually incr to the center.  Located 19' WNW of NGC 4260.  IC 3136 lies 12.5' ENE and a mag 9.5 star is 4.4' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 773 = J. 2-744 on 4 May 1893 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "F, vS, dif, 2 vF st inv."  His position is accurate.

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IC 776 = UGC 7352 = MCG +02-31-088 = PGC 39613

12 19 03.2 +08 51 20; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 98°

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, moderately large, diffuse, slightly elongated.  Forms the northern vertex of two stars mag 10/11 to south.  Pair with IC 3134 6.6' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 776 = J. 2-746 on 4 May 1893.

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IC 777 = UGC 7363 = MCG +05-29-052 = CGCG 158-064 = PGC 39663

12 19 23.8 +28 18 36; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 140°

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.4', little if any concentration.  The compact cluster Shkh 202 is ~8' NE!  (6 faint members close to a mag 6.7 star located 11' NE viewed).

 

17.5" (5/23/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Picked up 9' N of 9 Com (V = 6.3).  At 280x, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, PA ~160°, 0.8'x0.5', very weak concentration.  Located 18' NE of NGC 4251.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 777 = Sf. 18 on 14 May 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and simply noted "vF". His RA is 9 seconds too large.

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IC 778 = NGC 4198 = UGC 7246 = MCG +09-20-123 = CGCG 269-045 = PGC 39090

12 14 22.0 +56 00 42; UMa

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130°

 

See observing notes for NGC 4198.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 778 = Sw. 7-19 on 3 Apr 1888 and noted "eF, pS, R, bet 2 st in meridian [N-S], n. one = 13 mag."  There is nothing at his position.  It's possible IC 778 = MCG +09-20-146, though this galaxy is 10' north of Swift's position and 40 seconds of RA east, so it's off in both directions.  Although  MCG +09-20-146 lies between two stars, they are oriented SW-NE and not close to being "in meridian" [N-S].

 

But Harold Corwin found that if Swift made an error of exactly 5 minutes in RA (too large), then his position matches NGC 4198, which also is bracketed by two stars (oriented NNW-SSE).  The only uncertainty is why did Swift mention the "north one = 13 mag", when the southern star is the brighter one?  Still, this identification is more likely than MCG +09-20-146.

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IC 780 = UGC 7381 = MCG +04-29-064 = CGCG 128-077 = PGC 39745

12 19 58.4 +25 46 18; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  PA = 7°

 

24" (5/30/16): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, ~35"x20", brighter along the major axis.  Located 10' W of HJ 517 = 9.1/12.5 at 20", 14' SSW of mag 6.1 HD 107326 and 35' WSW of mag 4.8 12 Com.  IC 3171 lies 14' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered IC 780 = J. 2-747 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393).  He recorded "suspected, but probably a deception of two close stars."  Caroline's reduction lands just 1.3' NE of this galaxy, so the identification is certain, although he didn't confirm the observation and it wasn't included in his published catalogues.  Wolfgang Steinicke included this observation of IC 780 in his "Herschel Special" objects file.  IC 780 was the first of six IC galaxies that Herschel discovered while sweeping with his 18.7" that were not catalogued, generally because of uncertainty.  In addition IC 1339 was discovered with the 40-ft telescope, according to Wolfgang Steinicke.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 13 Apr 1893 and was credited in the IC.

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IC 781 = MCG +03-32-002 = CGCG 099-017 = PGC 39754

12 20 03.3 +14 57 41; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 45°

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round, diffuse, very weakly concentrated core.  A mag 15 star is off the north end 30" from center.  Located 2.0' ESE of a mag 10 star.  Form a pair with NGC 4262 9' SW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 781 = Big. 172 on 10 May 1888.

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IC 782 = MCG +01-32-020 = CGCG 042-043 = PGC 39962

12 21 36.9 +05 45 56; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  PA = 59°

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, small, round, 18" (core), weak concentration to center.  I missed the low surface brightness outer extensions WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.4 star is 0.6' S of center.  This galaxy is a little brighter than NGC 4287, which lies 14' SW.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered IC 782 = Voigt 4a = J. 1-212 on 27 Apr 1865 with the 31-inch silver-on-glass reflector at the Marseilles observatory.  His RA was accurate but the declination was off by 2'.  None of Voigt's discoveries were published due to his positions not being determined accurately enough.

 

Stephane Javelle rediscovered IC 782 on 17 Mar 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "eF, S, R."  His position is just off the west side of the galaxy.

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IC 783 = UGC 7415 = MCG +03-32-008 = CGCG 099-025 = PGC 39965

12 21 38.8 +15 44 42; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  PA = 141°

 

24" (3/23/22): at 260x; between faint and fairly faint, very slightly elongated ~E-W, 40" diameter, low but slightly uneven surface brightness.  Appears fainter than the listed magnitude.  Forms the northern vertex of a triangle with a mag 12.3 star 3' SE and a mag 13.4 star 2.4' SW. Situated 19' WSW of M100.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 783 = Sw. 7-20 on 6 Apr 1888 and reported "eF; S; R; nearly between 2 st. east and west; NGC 4312 and several others near."  His position is just off the south side of this galaxy and the two stars oriented east-west are 2.4' SW and 3.1' ESE.

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IC 784 = MCG -01-32-006 = PGC 40092

12 22 30.1 -04 39 10; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 109°

 

14.5" (4/12/21): at 158x and 226x; faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~50"x20", low pretty even surface brightness. A mag 9.7 star is 3' S and a mag 13 star is a similar distance W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 784 = Sw. 8-62 on 25 Mar 1889 and recorded "vF; pL; vE; pB * s[outh]."  His position was ~5' too far north.  In his survey of IC objects around 1900, Howe measured an accurate position, noted the elongation of the galaxy was E-W and the "pB * s" was a mag 8.5 star 2.9' S.

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IC 787 = MCG +03-32-031 = CGCG 099-043 = Holm 395b = PGC 40517

12 25 25.1 +16 07 27; Com

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round.  Located 3' S of a mag 10 star and 11' WSW of NGC 4405.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 787 = Sw. 7-21 on 7 Apr 1888 and logged "eF; pS; R; B * n; 4405 following." 

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IC 788 = NGC 4405 = UGC 7529 = MCG +03-32-036 = CGCG 099-050 = LGG 289-059 = PGC 40643

12 26 07.1 +16 10 52; Com

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 20°

 

See observing notes for NGC 4405.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 788 = J. 2-748 on 19 May 1893.  His offsets point directly to NGC 4405.  The IC description mentions "II. 88 [NGC 4405] south", but Javelle doesn't mention NGC 4405 in his description, so as Harold Corwin notes, this must have been added by Dreyer based on the position.

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IC 790 = NGC 4410C = MCG +02-32-051 = CGCG 070-075 = WBL 408-005 = PGC 40713

12 26 35.5 +09 02 07; Vir

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 94°

 

24" (6/4/16): at 225x; fairly faint, small, elonagated 3:2 E-W, 24"x16", very small brighter nucleus.  Third of three in an interconnected quartet with CGCG 070-079 2.3' ENE and NGC 4410A/B contact pair 1.8' WSW.  CGCG 070-079 appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 24"x12".

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, elongated E-W.  Forms a pair with NGC 4410 2' SW.  CGCG 070-079, 2.3' NE, was not noticed.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 790 = Big. 173 on 6 Apr 1888, very near NGC 4410.

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IC 791 = UGC 7555 = MCG +04-29-071 = CGCG 128-089 = PGC 40783

12 26 59.5 +22 38 22; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1'

 

14.5" (4/13/23): at 158x and 226x; fairly faint, round, 25"-30" diameter, broad weak concentration. A 7' string of 4 mag 12.5-15.0 stars oriented N-S is directy SW.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 791 = Sf. 26 on 6 Jun 1866.  His position is accurate.

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IC 793 = NGC 4445 = UGC 7587 = MCG